3 Emergency Medical Services System Developed to provide what is known as “pre-hospital” or “out of hospital” care. Its purpose is to get trained personnel to the patient as quickly as possible and to provide emergency care on the scene, en route to the hospital, and at the hospital
4 NHTSA Standards for EMS Systems Regulation and PolicyResource ManagementHuman Resources and TrainingTransportationFacilitiesCommunicationsPublic Information and EducationMedical DirectionTrauma SystemsEvaluation
5 Components of an EMS System contd… Regulation and Policy – must have in place enabling legislation (laws that allow the EMS system to exist), a lead EMS agency, a funding mechanism, regulations, policies, and proceduresResource Management – centralized coordination of resources so that all victims of trauma or medical emergencies have equal access to basic emergency care and transport by certified personnel, in a licensed and equipped ambulance, to an appropriate facilityHuman Resources and Training – at a minimum, all transporting prehospital personnel (on ambulance) should be trained to the EMT-Basic level using a standardized curriculumTransportation – safe, reliable ambulance transportation is a critical component; most patients are effectively transported by ground ambulance, but some may need helicopter or airplaneFacilities – seriously ill or injured patient must by delivered in a timely manner to the closest facility
6 Components of an EMS System contd… Communications – there must be an effective communication system, beginning with the universal system access number (9- 1-1), dispatch-to-ambulance, ambulance-to-ambulance, ambulance-to-hospital, and hospital-to-hospitalPublic Information and Education – EMS personnel may participate in efforts to educate the public about their role in the system, their ability to access the system, and the prevention of injuriesMedical Direction – must have a physician as a Medical Director accountable for the activities of EMS personnel within that systemTrauma Systems – enabling legislation must exist to develop a trauma system including one or more trauma centers, triage & transfer guidelines for patients, rehabilitation programs, data collection, mandatory autopsies, and means for managing & assuring the quality of the systemEvaluation – must have a program for evaluating and improving the effectiveness of the EMS system, QI (Quality Improvement), QA (Quality Assurance), or TQM (Total Quality Management)
7 Accessing the EMS System 9-1-1 (Regular versus Enhanced)Enhanced has the additional capacity of automatically identifying the caller’s phone number and locationRegular is a system for telephone access to report emergencies. A dispatcher takes the information and alerts EMS, fire or police departments as neededCommunities without 9-1-1Some communities do not have systems, so there is a 10-digit number that must be dialed to reach ambulance, fire or police services
8 Levels of EMS TrainingCertified First Responder (designed for the person who is first at the scene – police officers, fire fighters, industrial health personnel, etc… - emphasis is on activating the EMS system, providing immediate care for life-threatening injuries, controlling the scene, and preparing for the arrival of the ambulance)EMT–Basic (considered the minimum certification level for ambulance personnel curriculum deals with the assessment and care of the ill or injured patient)EMT–Intermediate (provides some level of advanced life support, such as the initiation of intravenous lines, advanced airway techniques, and the administration of some medications beyond the EMT-B level)EMT – Critical Care (provides same care as EMT-Intermediate, but can also administer first-line cardiac drugs)EMT–Paramedic (can perform relatively invasive field care, including insertion of endotracheal tubes, initiation of IV lines, administration of a variety of medications, interpretations of electrocardiograms and cardiac defibrillation)
9 The chain of human resources that make up the EMS system:
10 Components of the Emergency Medical System Prehospital Care – Care provided by people on the scene of an illness or injury (CFR’s, EMT’s, etc…)Emergency Departments – The sick or injured patient is taken to a local or specialty hospital and admitted through the emergency departmentContinued…
11 Components of the Emergency Medical System Specialty FacilitiesTrauma centersBurn centersPediatric centersPoison control centersOther specialty centers
12 Emergency Department Hospital Personnel Physicians Nurses Other Health Professionals
13 Liaison with Other Public Safety Workers Local Law EnforcementState and Federal Law Enforcement
14 Overview of the Local EMS System DispatchEmergency Medical DispatcherTypes of AgenciesHospital ResourcesOther Resources
16 Roles and Responsibilities Personal safetySafety of crew, patient, and bystandersPatient assessmentPatient care based on assessment findingsLifting and moving patients safelyTransport/transfer of careRecord-keeping/ data collectionPatient advocacy/Patient Rights
21 Quality ImprovementContinuous self-review to identify and correct aspects of the system that require improvement.
22 Quality ImprovementIf a problem is identified, a plan is developed and implemented to prevent further occurrences of the same problem. Helps to assure that the public receives the highest quality of pre-hospital care.
23 Role of the EMT–B Careful documentation Become involved in the QI process – Run Reviews and AuditsObtain feedback from hospital staff and PatientsContinued…
24 Role of the EMT–B (cont.) Maintain equipment/Conducting Preventative MaintenanceContinuing educationSkill maintenance
26 Medical DirectionOversight of the patient care aspects of an EMS System by the Medical Director
27 Medical DirectorAssumes ultimate responsibility for the patient care aspects of the EMS SystemOversees trainingDevelops protocolsDevelops standing ordersIntegral part of QI process
28 Types of Medical Direction On-lineOff-lineTelephoneRadioProtocolsStanding orders
29 On-line Medical Direction Consists of orders from the on-duty physician given directly to the EMT- B in the field by radio or telephoneYou should take name and number of the physician that you speak toYou must contact on-line medical direction to sign off a minor even in the presence of a parent
30 Off-line Medical Direction Protocols are lists of steps, such as assessments or intervention, to be taken in different situations – developed by the Medical DirectorStanding Orders are policies or protocols issued by a Medical Director that authorizes EMT-B’s and others to perform particular skills in certain situations
31 EMT–B Relationship with Medical Direction Designated agent of the physician.Care rendered is considered an extension of the medical director’s authority (varies by state law).
32 EMT–B Relationship with Medical Direction Designated agent is an EMT or other person authorized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care.The transfer of such authorization is an extension of the Medical Director’s license to practice medicine.
33 Specific Statutes and Regulations regarding EMS in NYS Public Health Law Article 30 – law that governs EMS and public health law; discusses “Good Samaritan Law”, Public Access Defibrillation, Epinephrine, Resuscitation Equipment and the establishment of EMS agencies
34 Specific Statutes and Regulations regarding EMS in NYS cont’d… Part 800 – document that includes the state emergency medical services code; covers general topics and topics specific to emergency medical services personnel and certified ambulance services requirements
35 Specific Statutes and Regulations regarding EMS in NYS cont’d… Local Regulations and Protocols – there is a book of protocols that each EMT should have that lists the steps to take while performing patient care. If there are any changes or updates, you should receive the updated information from your local EMS agency
36 Specific Statutes and Regulations regarding EMS in NYS cont’d… Vehicle and Traffic Law Concerning Emergency Vehicles – describes legal requirements in NYS for driving ambulances and other EMS response vehicles; establish a standard in NYS for EMS response vehicles emergency operations; create a climate to help reduce the number of crashes and accidents and thereby reduce the injuries and property damage associated with EMS response vehicle emergency operations, and to provide information to develop educational programs for EMS emergency vehicle operators