Presentation on theme: "Chemicals of Life Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemicals of LifeCarbohydratesProteinsLipidsNucleic Acids
2 Eagle ZoneYou will have 3 minutes at the sound of the bell to get out the following items:Lab book (notes section)CrosswordBiochemistry vocabulary review sheetFood label sheetFailure to have these items out on your desk when the 3 minutes is over will result in a 0 daily grade today.
3 Learning ObjectivesBio.9A Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids;Bio.9C Identify and investigate the role of enzymes ; and• Understand the structure/function and how it affects the reaction rate• Discuss how enzyme activity is influenced by temperature, pH, concentration and inhibitorsBio.9D Analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding formation of simple organic molecules and their organization into long complex molecules having information such as the DNA molecule for self-replicating life.• Discuss how the monomers make-up polymers
4 EngageMake a list of all the things you like to eat at the State Fair.
5 Explore 1 Food Label Investigation- Students will look at food labels to determine what types of biomolecules might be found in their foods
6 Molecular Organization (explain) Cell: Collection of compounds, smallest unit of living organismCO2NaClC6H12O6Compound: Combination of 2 or more elementsORMolecule: Bonding of 1 or more elementsElement: made of one type of atomAtom: smallest unit
7 These six elements make up all living organisms. 6 Essential ElementsHHeLiBeBCNOFNaMgAlSiPSClArKCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKrRbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXeCsBaLaHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgPbiPoAtRnFrRaAcRfHaeCHNOPSThese six elements make up all living organisms.
8 Let’s talk about carbon. Carbon is an element.HHeLiBeBCNOFNaMgAlSiPSClArKCaScTiVCrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKrRbSrYZrNbMoTcRuRhPdAgCdInSnSbTeIXeCsBaLaHfTaWReOsIrPtAuHgPbiPoAtRnFrRaAcRfHaeCLet’s talk about carbon.
9 C Carbon is an element. 6 12.11 6 atomic number How many protons? = 6 +How many protons?6atomic number=How many neutrons?6atomic massHow many energy levels?2How many electrons?6
10 Chemical Bonding What is a bond? Ex: NaCl-a.k.a Table Salt Attraction that holds atoms together, resulting in different forms of matter.Ex: NaCl-a.k.a Table SaltSodium (Na) is a metal that explodes in water.Chlorine (Cl) is a poisonous gas.When bonded together, they become the compound salt.
11 Types of Bonds Covalent Bonds – sharing of electrons Ionic Bonds – gaining or losing electronsHydrogen Bonds – how polar molecules “stick” together. (not a chemical bond)
12 Organic vs. InorganicOrganic Compounds contain a carbon-hydrogen bond (C6H12O6, CH4)C6H12O6Inorganic Compounds do not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond (CO2, H2O)
14 Carbon Remember the element carbon? Carbon is the basis of all organic compounds+Carbon can make 4 bonds
15 Hydrocarbon Backbone of all organic compounds Composed of carbon chains surrounded by hydrogensHCRemember that carbon can make 4 bonds
16 Found in Proteins and Lipids (fatty acids) Functional GroupsFunctional groups bond to the carbon in place of an H to give the compound unique chemical and physical properties.1.CHOHOCarboxyl GroupFound in Proteins and Lipids (fatty acids)
17 Found in Carbohydrates and Lipids (glycerol) Functional Groups2.CHOHHydroxyl GroupFound in Carbohydrates and Lipids (glycerol)3.CHOP_Phosphate GroupFound in Nucleic Acids
18 Functional Groups 4. Amine Group C N H Found in Proteins 5. C O Carbonyl GroupFound in Carbohydrates
19 Building Organic Compounds MonomersPolymerHow are monomers similar to links in a chain?
20 Eagle Zone-12 minutes1)How do you find the number of protons in an atom? 2)How do you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? 3)What is the difference between organic and inorganic? 4)What are the names of the 4 biomolecules?
21 Mini Quiz #11. Give the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the following elements:Carbon (atomic # 6, atomic mass=12g)Sulfur (atomic #=16, atomic mass = 32)Oxygen (atomic #=8, atomic mass=16)2. Is the compound C6H12O6 organic or inorganic? Why or why not?3. Is water an organic compound? Why or why not?4. How are monomers similar to links in a chain?5. Provide the name and the elements present for the following functional groups:Carbohydrates Lipids
22 Explore 2- Building Polymers Students will explore how monomers are linked, chain-like, into polymers with a building blocks activity
23 Eagle ZoneIf you did not finish your conclusion questions for the enzyme lab, do so at this time. It will be due TODAY, no exceptions, by the end of Eagle Zone timeYou have 12 minutes to complete today’s assignmentIf you are done with the questions, answer this:Name the 4 biomolecules and give an example of each
24 Eagle Zone Name the four carbon compounds (biomolecules) What element are all biomolecules made of?Provide the name of the bond that is the weakest and that can be found in water molecules.
25 Eagle zone- Write the questions and answer them. 16 minutes 1) Provide the name of the 4 organic compounds.2) Provide a simple definition for “functional group.”3) What element are all biomolecules made of?4) A monosaccharide is a type of--Carbohydrate c) Nucleic acidLipid d) Protein5) The structure of a lipid contains one ___________ and three __________ _____________ tails.6)What were the 2 tests we did for carbohydrates?7) What was the test we did for lipids?
26 Eagle Zone-write the questions and answer them 1) Which of the following correctly describes the parts of a nucleotide? (use the book for this one)A) deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, nitrogen baseB) ribose sugar, protein, lipid, nitrogen baseC) Nitrogen base, phosphate, ribose sugar2) Saliva breaks down food that you have eaten and changes it into simple carbohydrates. If a potato was chewed for two minutes and then spit into a test tube, the organic substance that would give a positive test would be aA)LipidB)sugarC)starch3)Which substance would store the most energy?A) one gram of fatB) one gram of carbohydrateC) one gram of protein4) Copy the class calendar into your agenda for the days you are in this class. Homework is in red. Study for quiz on Friday over biomolecules. Quiz next week on enzymes
28 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have 3 monomers: -Glucose -Fructose -Galactose“ose” indicates sugarWhat would this tell you about the taste of monosaccharides?
29 Building Carbohydrates Many monosaccharides bonded together form polysaccharides.C6H12O6C6H12O6C6H12O6C6H12O6C6H12O6PolysaccharideHow many water molecules would be removed by making the polysaccharide?Polysaccharides are known as starches.Will the taste of starches be the same as sugars?
30 Functions of Carbohydrates To provide a quick source of energy (by breaking the C-H bonds)EnergyC6H12O6C6H12O6C6H12O6
31 Functions of Carbohydrates To provide a quick source of energy (by breaking the C-H bonds)EnergyC6H12O6C6H12O6C6H12O6Animals store excess sugars as a starch known as glycogen.Plants store excess sugars as a starch known as cellulose.
33 LipidsThe different types of lipids are determined by the number of C-H bonds in the fatty acid chain.COHSaturated Fatty Acid: maximum number of C-H bonds.Unsaturated Fatty Acid: contains one double C-C bond.COHPolyunsaturated Fatty Acid: many double C-C bonds.OCH
34 Functions of LipidsEnergyLipids store energy, due to their numerous C-H bonds.Because they are insoluble in water (polar), lipids are found in animal cell membranes.Fats, oils, waxes and many hormones (steroids) are lipids
35 Proteins Elements: C, H, O, N, S Monomer: Amino Acids (20) Structure: “R” is the functional group that varies
36 Functions of ProteinsProteins are a major structural component for living organisms (ex. muscle)Proteins function as enzymes to carry out chemical reactions in the body.
37 Functions of Proteins Some hormones are protein (peptide hormones). Proteins also function to transport or carry substances in and out of cells.Cell membrane channel protein
38 Nucleic Acids Elements: C, H, O, N, P Monomer: nucleotide Structure: 3.1.O2.CH3OPOOCCCH2OOCHNHCHHCNCCHCHOHOHOAdenine
39 Nucleic Acids Nucleotide 3. 1. Phosphate Group 2.3.Phosphate Group5-Carbon Sugar (Dexoyribose or Ribose)Nitrogen BaseHH2H3OCNP1.2.3.
40 Function of Nucleic Acids Store genetic code (ATCG) - DNARemember, all living organisms share a universal genetic code!Help make proteins (RNA)
41 Overview Now you should fill in the notes page that I have provided to you (the 2 front/back pages) The 4 biomolecules:CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acidsOther terms for biomolecules:Carbon compoundsOrganic compoundsOrganic moleculesmacromolecules
42 Carbohydrates Elements Present Used by organisms for ... Building BlockRelated Terms& InfocarbonhydrogenoxygenC:H:O = 1: 2 : 1 alwaysenergystructureMonosaccharides(simple sugars)ex: glucoseC6H12O6dissaccharide =2 connectedmonosaccarides (ex: maltose)polysaccharide 3 or more connected monosaccarides(ex: starch, glycogen, chitin, cellulose)
43 Proteins Elements Present Used by organisms for ... Related Terms & Infocarbon hydrogen oxygen NITROGEN(always those 4)phosphorus sulfur(possibly)structure & movement (muscles)enzymesantibodieshormonespigmentspeptide bond = the bond that holds amino acids together in protein moleculesdipeptide = two connected amino acidspolypeptide = 3 or more connected amino acids Building Block of Proteins:amino acids
44 Lipids Elements Present Used by Organisms for ... Related Terms & Info Carbon Hydrogen OxygenONLY !There is no specific H:O ratio.Stored EnergyStructure (important part of cell membranes)saturated fat = C-C bonds are all single bondsunsaturated fat = contain at least one double or triple C-C bondBuilding Blocks of Lipidsfatty acid :glycerol :
45 Nucleic Acids DNA RNA FULL NAME Deoxyribonucleic acid Ribonucleic acid BASIC STRUCTURE2 long twisting strands ofnucleotides in theform of a"double helix"1 single strand ofnucleotidesNUCLEOTIDE SUGARDeoxyriboseRiboseNITROGENOUS BASESguanine (G)cytosine (C)adenine (A)thymine (T)uracil (U)LOCATION IN A CELLNucleus(the chromosomes)Nucleus,in the cytoplasm,& at the ribosomesFUNCTIONthe hereditary materialof a cell, directs& controls cell activitiesinvolved in proteinsynthesis
46 Explore LabStudents will test the presence or absence of the groups of biomolecules through a series of activities using compound indicators
47 Elaborate Indicators: Determine what class of organic compound foods belong to when testing them using indicators (McMush Lab)
48 EvaluateThe student will construct a flip chart that organizes the biomolecules, their building blocks, polymer, characteristics, and examplesThe student will keep a Nutrition Log for one week to organize the foods they ate and classify those foods into the biomolecule groups
49 Mini Quiz #21) Fructose is a compound found in many fruits which give them their sweet taste. The suffix “ose” lets us know that fructose can be classified as a-Carbon b) starch c)sugar d)protein2) Starch and sugar are two types of _________.3) The biomolecule which has functional groups that contain elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen is________.
50 Mini Quiz #3Proteins are made up of molecules called _______ ________.Lipids contain the following structuresCarbon chain and an “r” groupA glycerol and 3 fatty acidsA glycerol and an amine group
51 Evaluate I CANNOT HELP YOU Create a data table in your journal similar to the one belowObtain 3 test tubes and label them a, b,cChoose a sample and record the sample number in your data table. Add 3 mL of the sample substance to each test tubeAdd 8 drops of iodine to test tube “a”Add 10 drops of benedict’s to test tube “b”Add 1 mL of biuret’s to test tube “c”Record the color change and tell which type of biomolecule is present based on the colorClean out your test tubes and repeat steps 3-7 using a different sample #. Clean out test tubes when you are done.Sample #Color changebiomolecule