2 Invitational Office Hour Invitations, by Student Number for November 12 th 11:30-12:30, 3:30-4:30 Kenny 2517 14289078 24487084 40031080 67142083 70420088
3 Announcements Please note that grades for the midterm exam are now available on the course website. After scaling, the mean score on the exam was 68% (SD = 17%, range=28-100%).
4 David will hold a review session for the midterm exam on Friday, November 12 th, at 12:30. Please meet David at his office—Kenny, 2514. If you are unable to attend the session and would like to review your exam, you may see David during his office hour or contact David to schedule an appointment to meet.
5 1. What theories illustrate the social learning view? (continued) Social Learning Theories of Gender Differences
6 By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. identify common models of gender. 2. discuss trends in gender-representations in children’s literature and TV programming.
7 What theories illustrate the social learning view? (continued) 1.Social Cognitive Theory (continued) Substantial evidence has demonstrated that models can have a significant influence on behaviour:
8 Participants: Preschool-aged children. Experimental condition: Observed an adult playing aggressively with a Bobo doll. The adult exhibited characteristic behaviours and verbalizations. Control condition: Did not observe an adult playing aggressively with a Bobo doll. E.g., Bandura, Ross, & Ross (1961)
9 Results: Children in the experimental condition were more aggressive towards the Bobo doll than children in the control condition. Children in the experimental condition tended to mimic the behaviour of the adult model.
16 Gooden & Gooden (2001): Found that males and females were presented as the main character in children’s books with equal frequency. However, males were featured in more illustrations and in a greater variety of roles than females. Weitzman et al. (1972): Found that males were presented as the main character in children’s books 11 times more than females.
17 Diekman & Murnen (2004): Found that “nonsexist” children’s books were: (a) more likely than “sexist” children’s books to present females as possessing “masculine” characteristics. (b) as likely as sexist children’s books to present females as possessing “feminine” characteristics. (c) as likely as sexist children’s books to present males as possessing masculine vs. feminine characteristics.
18 Ochman (1996): Found that children’s self-esteem increased after having been read positive stories about a same-sex character, but not after having been read positive stories about an opposite sex- character.
19 The Berenstain Bears Little Bear 24 Children, Family, and Adult TV Series Desperate Housewives Flashpoint The Young and the Restless Mighty Machines The Office Sex and the City
20 Signorielli & Lears (1992), Rivadeneyra & Ward (2005): Found a positive correlation between time spent watching television and the extent to which children held gender-role stereotypes.
21 1. What theories illustrate the social learning view? (continued) Social Learning Theories of Gender Differences