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Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis.

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1 Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis

2 Looking Westward Manifest Destiny was one of the factors driving white Americans to look to the west - rested on the idea that America was destined by God and by history to expand its boundaries over a vast area, by the end of the 1840s the U.S. had acquired more than 1 million square miles to get to its current boundary

3 Territorial Growth

4 Looking Westward John L. O'Sullivan gave the movement its name, reflected the belief in the superiority of the "American race" (white people of northern European origins), some envisioned a vast new "empire of liberty" that would include Canada, Mexico, Caribbean and Pacific islands

5 Looking Westward Supporters of Manifest Destiny argued that Indians, Mexicans and other races in the western regions were racially unfit to be part of an “American” community, the idea of Manifest Destiny was a movement to spread both a political system and a racially defined society

6 Looking Westward Henry Clay feared that territorial expansion would reopen controversy over slavery and threaten the stability of the Union, but most Americans supported expansion, especially into Texas and Oregon

7 Looking Westward In the early 1820’s the Mexican government began to encourage American immigration into Texas hoping to strengthen the economy, increase tax revenue (an 1824 law promised the settlers cheap land and a four-year exemption from taxes), and by ,000 Americans were living in Texas, more than double the number of Mexicans living there, and most of these Americans were southern planters who brought slaves with them and planted cotton

8 Looking Westward Stephen F. Austin established the first legal American settlement in Texas and was effective in recruiting American immigrants, by 1835, after failed bans on immigration, there were 30,000 Americans living in Texas

9 Looking Westward General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna seized power as dictator, imposed a more conservative and autocratic regime, imprisoned Austin claiming that he was encouraging revolts among his fellow Americans

10 Looking Westward Sporadic fighting between Americans and Mexicans in Texas began in 1835 and escalated due to debates over slavery, then in 1836, American settlers proclaimed their independence from Mexico, American soldiers could not even agree who their commanders were, Mexican forces annihilated an American garrison at the Alamo mission in San Antonio

11 Looking Westward By 1836 Americans were fleeing east toward Louisiana to escape Santa Anna's army, at the Battle of San Jacinto Sam Houston defeated the Mexican army - Santa Ana (a captive at the time) signed a treaty giving Texas its independence

12 Looking Westward Sam Houston hoped to join the Union, citizens in the North opposed acquiring new slave territory, Andrew Jackson feared annexation would cause a dangerous sectional controversy and delayed recognizing the new republic until 1837

13 Looking Westward Texas began to seek money and support from Europe, England and France quickly recognized Texas and formed trade treaties with Texas

14 Looking Westward Texas reapplied for statehood in 1844, but Secretary of State Calhoun presented an annexation treaty that appeared as if its only purpose was to extend slavery, Northern senators rebelled and defeated the treaty and it quickly became the issue of the election of 1844

15 Looking Westward Both Britain and U.S. claimed sovereignty over the Oregon Country (Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming), and agreed on "joint occupation", mostly populated by fur traders headquartered in Astoria

16 Looking Westward 1820's and 1830's missionaries were motivated by a desire to counter Catholic missionaries from Canada, and the appearance of 4 Nez Pierce and Flathead Indians in St. Louis in 1831, began to extend their westward missionary efforts

17 Looking Westward In the 1840's, significant numbers of white Americans began emigrating to Oregon - devastated the Indian population through measles epidemics, eventually outnumbering the British, leading to Manifest Destiny advocates urging the U.S. government to take control of the territory

18 Looking Westward Great Migration Westward was an arduous journey that hundreds of thousands took in search of new opportunities, most traveled in family groups (until the gold rush in 1849 that brought large numbers of single men) most were relatively prosperous and the primary method of transport was a covered wagon

19 Western Trials in 1860

20 Looking Westward Men looked to make money in mining and lumbering, families looked to start farms, some hoped to strike it rich after the 1848 discovery of gold in California, others hoped to make money off of land speculation, some tried to become merchants to serve the new communities of the West, still others came on religious missions or tried to escape the epidemics plaguing the cities back east

21 Looking Westward Most migrants (about 300,000 between 1840 and 1860) traveled west along the great overland trails that started in Independence, Missouri, St. Joseph, Missouri, or Council Bluffs, Iowa in wagon trains carrying their belongings with them in covered wagons with livestock trailing behind

22 Looking Westward The main route west was the Oregon Trail which stretched from Independence, Missouri across the Great Plains through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains into Oregon or south along the California Trail to the Northern California coast, still other migrants went south from Independence, Missouri along the Santa Fe Trail into New Mexico

23 Looking Westward Most journeys lasted 5 or 6 months and there was considerable pressure to get through the Rockies before the snows began, which was not easy considering that most wagon trains averaged about 15 miles a day

24 Looking Westward Thousands of migrants died on trails of cholera during the epidemics of the early 1850s, while fewer than 400 migrants (1 tenth of 1%) died in conflicts with the Native tribes, in fact Indians were often more helpful than dangerous to the migrants often serving as guides/aides, and there was an extensive trade in horses, clothing and fresh food between the migrants and the natives

25 Looking Westward Life on the Trail – Men/Women, Walking, Collective Experience

26 Expansion and War Election of Henry Clay was the nominee of the Whigs, the Democrats passed over Martin Van Buren led by southerners who supported the annexation of Texas and instead nominated James K. Polk, who was in favor of reoccupation of both Oregon and Texas territory, James K. Polk won the Presidency “the re-occupation of Oregon and the re-annexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are great American measures”

27 Expansion and War Polk asserted the American claim to all of the Oregon country after the British rebuffed Polk’s compromise of dividing the territory at the 49th parallel, there was loose talk of war (54’40 or fight) but neither country wanted war

28 The Oregon Boundary 1846

29 Expansion and War In December 1845 Texas became a state under Polk's administration, and the British accepted Polk's proposal to divide the Oregon territory at the 49th parallel

30 Expansion and War Mexican-American relations grew worse when a dispute developed over the boundary between Texas and Mexico, the Texans claimed the Rio Grande River as their western and southern border, Mexico argued that the border had always been the Nueces River, north of the Rio Grande

31 Expansion and War In 1820 Mexico invited American settlers into New Mexico to help out the economic situation in that territory by the 1830’s it had become more American than Mexican, a flourishing commerce developed between Santa Fe and Independence, Missouri along the Santa Fe Trail

32 Expansion and War In the Mexican province of California, white Americans gradually began to arrive (maritime traders, captains of whaling ships, merchants, and farmers)

33 Expansion and War Polk began to dream of bringing California and New Mexico into the U.S., he dispatched troops under Zachary Taylor into Texas, and gave secret instructions to the commander of the Pacific naval squadron to seize the California ports if Mexico declared war and quietly informed Americans in California that the U.S. would respond sympathetically if the rebelled against Mexican authorities

34 Expansion and War John Slidell was sent to try and buy off the Mexicans but they rejected his offer to purchase the disputed territory, so Polk ordered U.S. troops to move further south across the Nueces River to the Rio Grande River, according to disputed accounts Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande River and fired on U.S. troops.

35 Expansion and War Polk went to Congress and asked for a declaration of war ("War exists by the act of Mexico herself”) and Congress declared war on May 13, 1846 by a vote of 40 to 2 in the Senate and a vote of 174 to 14 in the House of Representatives

36 Expansion and War There were many opponents of the war in the United States; Whigs argued Polk deliberately maneuvered the country into the war, others argued that the war with Mexico was draining resources/attention away from the Pacific Northwest, and when Polk resolves the dispute with Britain, opponents claim he settled for less than he should have gotten

37 The Mexican War

38 Expansion and War Polk ordered Zachary Taylor to seize Monterrey and then to march on to Mexico City, in New Mexico a small army under Colonel Stephen W. Kearny captured Santa Fe without opposition and then marched toward California where a conflict was being waged between Americans under John C. Fremont and the Mexican army

39 Expansion and War Bear Flag Revolution – Kearny brought the disparate American forces together and by autumn of 1846 completed the conquest of California

40 Expansion and War Under Winfield Scott, the U.S. army landed at Vera Cruz and marched to Mexico City, a new Mexican government took power and agreed to negotiations with the US

41 Expansion and War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican War with Mexico agreeing to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledged the Rio Grande River as the southern boundary of Texas, the U.S. was to pay $15 million in compensation for Mexican losses

42 The Sectional Debate Wilmot Proviso – Representative David Wilmot (antislavery Democrat) introduced an amendment to the appropriations bill, prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico - passed the House failed in the Senate

43 The Sectional Debate President Polk supported a proposal to extend the Missouri Compromise line through the new territories to the Pacific Coast, others supported a plan allowing “squatter sovereignty” (Popular Sovereignty) that would allow the people of each territory to decide the status of slavery there

44 The Sectional Debate In the election of 1848 Whigs and Democrats tried to avoid the slavery question, the Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor (Mexican war hero), while the Democrats nominated Lewis Cass

45 The Sectional Debate The Free Soil Party emerged out of the discontent of the opponents of slavery, who found the choice of candidates unsatisfying, and nominated Martin Van Buren

46 The Sectional Debate The emergence of the Free Soil party as an important political force (10% of the vote and 10 Congressmen elected) signaled the inability of the existing parties to contain the political passions slavery was creating - an important part of a process that would lead to the collapse of the second party system in the 1850's

47 The Sectional Debate Zachary Taylor won the election of 1848 in a narrow victory over Van Buren

48 The Sectional Debate In 1848 James Marshall found gold while working in John Sutter’s sawmills in the Sierra Nevada foothills and the gold rush was on, the population increased from 14,000 in 1848 to over 220,000 in 1852

49 The Sectional Debate Forty-Niners abandoned farms, jobs, homes and families and moved west to California in search of Gold, mostly (95%) male led to a tremendously unstable society

50 The Sectional Debate Chinese in California became free laborers and merchants looking for gold, or to profit from the economic opportunities the gold boom was creating, the Indians were not as fortunate and were virtually enslaved or killed by “Indian hunters” (the Indian population of California went from 150,000 in the early 1850s to 30,000 in 1870)

51 The Sectional Debate The population of California surged and encompassed such groups as Chinese, Mexicans, free blacks, slaves, Europeans, and white Americans


53 The Sectional Debate President Taylor believed that each state should chose whether or not to allow slavery, and urged California to apply for statehood as a free state POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY

54 The Sectional Debate Causes of discontent among North and South - antislavery forces attempted to abolish slavery in DC, the emergence of personal liberty laws which barred states from helping to return runaway slaves, the fear that the two new free states (California and New Mexico, plus possibly Oregon and Utah) would upset the balance in Congress (15 – 15 in the Senate) and leave the South in the minority as it already was in the House of Representatives

55 The Sectional Debate Henry Clay proposed a solution – the admission of California as a free state, the formation of territorial governments in the rest of the lands acquired from Mexico without restrictions on slavery, the abolition of the slave trade in DC, and a new more effective fugitive slave law, but Congress did not pass the proposed compromise

56 Compromise of 1850 California becomes a free state
South gets a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Slavery is recognized in the District of Columbia Slave Trade is banned in the District of Columbia

57 The Compromise of 1850

58 The Sectional Debate Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and Daniel Webster left the Senate and were replaced by William Seward, a northerner who staunchly opposed any compromise, the ideals of Union were less important than the issue of eliminating slavery, Jefferson Davis, a pro-slavery southerner, and Stephen A. Douglass, a westerner who advocated economic interests

59 The Sectional Debate Zachary Taylor died while in office and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore, who unlike Taylor supported the Compromise of 1850, Stephen Douglas broke up the compromise into small parts, which were to be passed individually, The Compromise of 1850 was not a product of widespread agreement, but it did briefly pacify the emerging sectional conflict

60 The Crises of the 1850’s In the election of 1852, the Democrats nominated Franklin Pierce, the Whigs nominated Winfield Scott, both candidates avoided issue of slavery - out of discontent many flocked to the Free Soil Party who had nominated John P. Hale

61 1852 Presidential Election
√ Franklin Pierce Gen. Winfield Scott John Parker Hale Democrat Whig Free Soil

62 1852 Election Results

63 The Crises of the 1850’s Franklin Pierce won the election of 1852 and supported a movement known as ''young America", which saw the expansion of American democracy throughout the world as a way to divert attention from the controversies over slavery

64 The Crises of the 1850’s Pierce attempted to buy Cuba from Spain – a group of his envoys sent him the Ostend Manifesto in 1854, which made the case of seizing Cuba by force, this enraged many antislavery Northerners

65 The Crises of the 1850’s Interest in further development of the west (most of the territory could be farmed) resulted in dislodging of Indian tribes, broad support began to emerge for building a transcontinental rail road, there was a strong debate about where to place its eastern terminus, northerners favored Chicago, southerners wanted New Orleans or St. Louis

66 The Crises of the 1850’s Gadsden Purchase – the US bought a strip of land for $10 million (southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico) from Mexico, which enabled a southern route to become possible

67 The Crises of the 1850’s In an effort to allow the railroad to go through Chicago, Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to organize a huge new territory

68 The Crises of the 1850’s Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 – the status of slavery in the territory would be determined by Popular Sovereignty, repealed the Missouri Compromise in an effort to attract Southern support for the bill, it became law in 1854 with the unanimous support of the South and partial support of the North

69 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

70 Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)
“Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)

71 The Crises of the 1850’s The result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was that the Whig party almost entirely disappeared by 1856, the Democratic Party was divided into northern and southern groups, and those outraged at the repeal of the Missouri Compromise created a new party, the Republican Party in 1854

72 The Crises of the 1850’s Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act white settlers from both the south and the north moved into Kansas, and in the spring of 1855 an election was held to select the territorial legislature, there were 1,500 legal voters in Kansas but thousands of Missourians swelled the vote in Kansas to 6,000 and resulted in a pro-slavery legislature that immediately legalized slavery

73 The Crises of the 1850’s Outraged free-staters elected their own delegates to a constitutional convention which met in Topeka and adopted a constitution outlawing slavery, then they chose their own governor and legislature and petitioned Congress for statehood, President Pierce deemed them traitors and he gave his full support to the pro-slavery legislature

74 The Crises of the 1850’s A pro-slavery federal marshal assembled a large posse (made up mostly of Missourians) to arrest the free-state leaders who had set up their headquarters in Lawrence, Kansas. The posse sacked the town, burned the “governors” house, and destroyed several printing presses

75 The Crises of the 1850’s John Brown (who believed that he was God’s instrument to destroy slavery) moved to Kansas with his sons so they could fight to make it a free state. After the sacking of Lawrence he gathered six followers (including four of his sons) and murdered five pro-slavery settlers leaving their mutilated bodies to discourage other supporters of slavery from entering Kansas (known as the Pottawatomie Massacre)

76 The Crises of the 1850’s The violence in Kansas during the mid-1850s became known as “Bleeding Kansas” and was characterized by guerrilla warfare

77 John Brown: Madman, Hero or Martyr?
Mural in the Kansas Capitol building by John Steuart Curry (20c)

78 The Crises of the 1850’s Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts (a militant and passionate opposition of slavery) gave a speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas” on the Senate floor which made reference to Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina “chosen a mistress…who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him, though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight…the harlot slavery” - brutally beaten by Preston Brooks (Butler’s nephew) on the floor of the Senate with a heavy cane, both became heroes in their sections

79 “The Crime Against Kansas”
Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC)

80 The Crises of the 1850’s Northern beliefs centered around the idea of "free soil" or "free labor", argued for the right of all citizens to own property, control their own labor and have access to opportunity for advancement, the South was a closed, static society, in which slavery preserved an entrenched aristocracy and in which common whites had no opportunity to improve themselves

81 The Crises of the 1850’s Slave Power Conspiracy believed the south was engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation and destroy openness of northern capitalism and replace it with an aristocracy supported by slavery, the only solution was to fight the spread of slavery and extend the nation’s democratic ideals (free-labor) to all sections of the country

82 The Crises of the 1850’s This ideology was the main idea of the Republican Party and strengthened the commitment of Republicans to the Union, continued growth and progress was central to the free-labor vision and the dismemberment of the Union was unthinkable

83 Birth of the Republican Party, 1854
Northern Whigs. Northern Democrats. Free-Soilers. Know-Nothings. Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

84 The Crises of the 1850’s The South was beginning to dig in its heels over the issue of slavery as a result of Nat Turner’s rebellion (1831), the expansion of the cotton economy throughout the Deep South, the growth of the abolitionist movement, and the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin

85 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.
2 million in a decade!

86 The Crises of the 1850’s The Pro-Slavery Argument, John C. Calhoun stated that southerners should stop apologizing for slavery, and regard it as a positive good – it was good for the slaves who were better treated than factory workers up north, it was good for southern society because it allowed the two races to live in peace, good for the whole country because the southern cotton economy was the key to the prosperity of the nation, and was good because it served as the basis for the southern way of life

87 The Crises of the 1850’s They believed that the south was a stable, orderly society that operated at a slow and human pace, one that was free from feuds between capital and labor like the ones plaguing the North, and did not have crowded, pestilential cities

88 The Crises of the 1850’s In the Election of 1856, the Democratic candidate was James Buchanan, the Republican candidate was John C. Fremont who denounced the Kansas- Nebraska Act and the expansion of slavery, and endorsed internal improvements and economic aspirations of the North, and the Whigs (just a sad remnant of what they were) nominated Millard Fillmore

89 1856 Presidential Election
√ James Buchanan John C. Frémont Millard Fillmore Democrat Republican Whig

90 The Crises of the 1850’s Buchanan won the election of 1856 by a narrow vote, just a shift of a few votes in Illinois and Pennsylvania would have given the election to the Republicans, but ominously, Fremont got almost no votes in the South while outpolling all the other candidates in the North

91 1856 Election Results

92 The Crises of the 1850’s Dred Scott vs Sandford (1857) Dred Scott, a Missouri slave, sued his master for freedom on the grounds that he was living on free territory when his master took into Illinois and Wisconsin, the claim was well grounded in Missouri law and a circuit court decision declared him free,

93 Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857

94 The Crises of the 1850’s Chief Justice Roger Taney declared that Scott could not bring a suit in the federal courts because he was not a citizen (blacks had no claim to citizenship and virtually no rights under the Constitution), slaves were property and the 5th Amendment prohibited Congress from taking property without “due process of the law”

95 The Crises of the 1850’s Congress possessed no authority to pass a law depriving persons of their slave property in the territories and the Missouri Compromise had always been unconstitutional, Southerners were elated and the Republicans threatened that when they won control of the government they would pack the Supreme Court with justices who would overturn the decision

96 The Crises of the 1850’s President Buchanan endorsed the Dred Scott decision and supported Kansas’ admission to the Union as a slave state, which caused the pro-slavery legislature in Kansas to choose delegates to a constitutional convention, which the free-state residents refused to participate in because the legislature discriminated against them in drawing the district lines, as a result the pro-slavery forces won control of the convention which met at Lecompton, Kansas in 1857

97 The Crises of the 1850’s The Lecompton constitution legalized slavery, and the delegates who wrote it refused to put it to vote in Kansas, at the next election for the territorial legislature the free-state residents turned out to vote and won control of the legislature, they promptly put the Lecompton constitution to a vote of the residents of Kansas who rejected it by more than 10,000 votes

98 The Crises of the 1850’s It was clear that the majority of Kansas residents opposed slavery but President Buchanan pressured Congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution as a slave state, western Democrats resisted and the bill died in the House, in April 1858 the Lecompton constitution was put before the voters of Kansas again and again it was defeated, Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861 after the Deep South succeeded


100 The Crises of the 1850’s In the Congressional elections of 1858 the sectional crisis was the main issue and the main election was in Illinois between the Democrat Stephen Douglas and the Republican Abraham Lincoln who engaged in a series of debates throughout the state

101 The Crises of the 1850’s Lincoln did not care whether slavery “was voted up or voted down”, he argued that if the nation could accept that blacks were not entitled to basic human rights then it could accept that other groups (immigrant laborers) could be deprived of rights too, and that if slavery spread into the territories opportunities for poor white laborers would lose their opportunities to better their lots there, the nation’s future rested on the spread of free labor

102 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.
The Lincoln-Douglas (Illinois Senate) Debates, 1858 A House divided against itself, cannot stand.

103 The Crises of the 1850’s Lincoln believed that slavery was morally wrong but he was not an abolitionist, he could not see an easy alternative for areas in which slavery already existed, he believed that the black race was not prepared to live on equal terms with whites, therefore he was prepared to challenge the spread of slavery into the federal territories but would not challenge it where it already existed

104 The Crises of the 1850’s Lincoln lost the election for the U.S. Senate in 1858 but his debates put him at the top of the list for Republican presidential hopefuls heading into the election of 1860, the Democrats lost ground in every Northern state and lost control of the House of Representatives

105 The Crises of the 1850’s On October 16, 1859 John Brown led a raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA hoping to start a slave insurrection in the South, his plan was an utter failure and he was quickly surrounded by a company of U.S. troops under the leadership of Robert E. Lee, John Brown was captured, tried in a Virginia court for treason against the state, found guilty, and was sentenced to death and hung

106 The Crises of the 1850’s Most southerners believed that John Brown’s Raid had the support of the Republican Party (which it did not) and they were firmly convinced that they could not live safely in the Union since the North was supporting slave insurrections

107 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859

108 The Crises of the 1850’s The Presidential Election of 1860 saw the Democratic Party split along sectional lines, the southerners demanded a strong endorsement of slavery, while the westerners supported the idea of popular sovereignty, the northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas, the southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckenridge.

109 1860 Presidential Election
√ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union 1860 Presidential Election John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat

110 The Election of 1860

111 The Crises of the 1850’s A group of conservative Whigs called themselves the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell, and the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln who ran on the platform of a high tariff, internal improvements, a homestead bill, and the right of each state to decide the status of slavery within its border

112 Republican Party Platform in 1860
Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers. Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists]. No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”]. Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest]. Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense. Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].

113 The Crises of the 1850’s Abraham Lincoln – 180 electoral votes, 39.8% of the popular vote John C. Breckenridge – 72 electoral votes, 18.1% of the popular vote John Bell – 39 electoral votes, 12.6% of the popular vote Stephen Douglas – 12 electoral votes, 29.5% of the popular vote

114 1860 Election Results

115 The Crises of the 1850’s The Republicans failed to win a majority in Congress, but nonetheless many southerners felt they could not stay in the Union and the process of succession began

116 1860 Election: 3 “Outs” & 1 ”Run!”

117 1860 Election: A Nation Coming Apart?!

118 Crittenden Compromise: A Last Ditch Appeal to Sanity
Senator John J. Crittenden (Know-Nothing-KY)

119 Secession!: SC Dec. 20, 1860

120 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861

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