2 Human Environment and Interaction St Lawrence Seaway - North America’s most important deep water ship route; joint project between USA and Canada.A system of locks, canals, and channels that allow large ship to travel from central North America, through the Great Lakes, and out to the Atlantic Ocean.
4 Human Environment and Interaction The diagram below shows the sequence ships would travel from west to east. Notice the depth of the lakes, and the elevation change from Lake Erie to Montreal. Without the locks boats would not have been able to travel over this area because of waterfalls.
5 Erie CanalThe Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles (584 km) from Albany, New York, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, New York, at Lake Erie. Built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, allowing for grains and meats from the Midwest to get to the east coast via a waterway. History Song
9 Mississippi RiverAt 2,340 miles, the Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States, behind only the Missouri. It flows through ten before emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. Because it flows from the northern United States and the Great Lakes to the south, and connects to the west via the Missouri River, the Mighty Mississippi has been important for transportation, exploration, commerce, and water supply for centuries.
13 Mississippi RiverFlood control on the Mississippi
14 RailroadsTrains were instrumental in settling the western part of the United States of America.To encourage development of rail lines westward, the government offered railroad companies massive land grants and bonds. Railroads received millions of acres of public lands and sold that land to generate money for the construction of the railroads. The federal government gave 134 million acres of land as incentives to the railroads.
17 Human Environment and Interaction Hoover DamWhy was it builtTo help control floodingTo provide water for irrigationTo produce hydroelectric power
18 LocationWhat is the absolute location of North America? What is the relative location of North America?
19 Population and Migration Beringia-Land bridge that once connected Siberia and Alaska
20 Population and Migration Columbian Exchange - The exchange of plants, animals, disease, and people (slaves) between the old and new worlds.
21 Population and Migration Melting Pot (USA) vs Mosaic (Canada)Melting pot is much closer to assimilationMosaic is much closer to multiculturalismPlano, TX –no “towns”Los Angeles- Chinatown, Korea town, Little Italy,
22 Population Geography of Canada About 90% of Canada’s population lives within 100 miles of the US-Canadian border.One-third of Canada’s population lives in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
23 Population Geography of USA East Coast -first settled, then West Coast, Middle America.
25 Culture/GovernmentCanada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal state with a democratic parliament.USA-Constitution-based federal republic; strong democratic tradition
26 Culture-People Metis- People of French and Native heritage. Immigrant-someone who comes to a new country. (Push or Pull) Railways (Pull)Refugee- someone forced to flee their country due to war, persecution or violence. (Push)
28 Culture LanguageCanada - 2 official languagesFrench and EnglishUSA - O official languages. The federal government has never mandated an official languageEnglish spoken by 80% of AmericaSpanish spoken by 30% of America
31 Maritime or Atlantic Provinces Atlantic Canada - Easternmost provinces of Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward IslandCod fishing - mainstay of region’s economyThe Grand Banks – Shallow waters in the Atlantic, rich source of fish.
32 Core Provinces Ontario and Quebec Two-thirds of Canada's population lives in this region.Settled along the St. Lawrence River and the Great LakesOntario - strongly BritishQuebec - 80% of the population of French origin.
33 Prairie ProvincesPrairie region - Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta.Wheat, petroleum, and coalNewly discovered “shale oil” reserves may be larger than the Middle East.Major urban centers include Edmonton, Calgary, and Winnipeg.
36 Major Regions of the United States NortheastMidwest/Rust BeltSouthGreat PlainsWestern InteriorPacific WestAlaska and Hawaii
37 NortheastMaine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of ColumbiaHistorical Geographylongest history of European settlement, gateway to immigrants.financial and manufacturing hub early in the industrial revolution.Economic GeographyRural areas are agricultural – primary sectorUrban areas are major world economic centers – tertiary, quaternary sectorsCultural GeographyVery diverse, large population – many ethnic groups and languagesUsually votes Democrat
38 Midwest “Why is it called the Rust Belt?” Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and IowaHistorical GeographyOnce the “Western Frontier”, hence the name.Breadbasket of the U.S., as this is an agricultural region.Also known as a manufacturing, blue-collar hub of the U.S.Economic GeographyFormerly mining and manufacturing center – primary and secondary sectorDecline in recent past, hurt area economy, jobs moved awayCultural GeographyLarge cities, declining population - Urban Gentrification in some places. “White Flight” in 1960’s-80’s.Mainly blue collar, rural areas mainly white
39 SouthNorth Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Virginia, W. Virginia, Kentucky, and LouisianaHistorical Geographysettled as an agricultural region, with slavery and cash cropsAnglo Protestant plantation farmers were dominant group.Significant in US Civil War ( ) and Civil Rights Movement (1960’s)Economic GeographyAgriculture, new heavy industry, tourismMoving from primary sector to secondary and tertiary sectorsCultural GeographyLarge African-American populationStrongly Christian, usually votes RepublicanCulture still has connection to Civil War
40 Great Plains Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Historical GeographyStaging point of war between the native people and the American settlers, especially after the 1862 “Homestead Act”.Was also used for cattle grazing and cattle drives, cities founded as railroad hubs for cattle.Economic GeographyAgriculture – farming and cattle, Primary sectorRegion makes enough food to feed whole worldCultural GeographyPeople are mainly Anglo, ProtestantMainly rural – lots of small towns, fewer cities
41 Western Interior States New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, TexasHistorical GeographyMining towns, Outlaws (Wild West)Cattle/Sheep Grazing, Reservation LandsLas Vegas and Reno- Gambling townsCultural GeographyLow population densityLarge Hispanic population, as well as Native Americans
42 Pacific West States California, Oregon, Washington Historical GeographyPopulation grew during the 1840’s “Gold Rush”.Grew again when irrigation and canals brought water to dry areas for farming.Economic GeographyMostly mining and ranching, primary sectors; tourism, tertiary sectors.High-tech centers in San Francisco, Seattle areas – quaternary sectorEntertainment and media in Southern CaliforniaCultural GeographyPresently, about one-seventh of the United States population lives in southern California.Rapidly increasing urban population, due to high birth rate and immigrationLarge Hispanic population
43 Alaska and Hawaii Alaska and Hawaii, Pacific Ocean Historical GeographyAlaska was purchased from Russian Empire in 1867, for $7.2 million, became a territory in 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. in 1959.Hawaii was independent republic from 1894 until 1898, then annexed by USA. Attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan on December 7, Became a state in 1959.Economic GeographyTourism and fishing, agriculture in HawaiiOil, mining, and forestry important in AlaskaCultural GeographyLarge populations of Hawaiians, Native Americans, and Asians
44 THIS ONLY WORKS IF YOU WORK Your teacher can only keep a loose grip on the classroom if he can trust you to work on your own initiative.Every time you goof off, you make it more difficult for him to do that.Look around. See someone goofing around? They risk your freedoms. Do something about it before he has to.Also, Murica.