9 Eastern LowlandsEastern lowlands: flat, coastal plain runs along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.Atlantic Coastal Plains: begin as lowlands in the northeastern US & widen as it extends into Florida.PiedmontBetween plains & Appalachian MountainsContains rolling hills & fast-flowing rivers and streams.
11 Appalachian Highlands West of the coastal plainsGently sloping Appalachian Mountains.Begin in Newfoundland to Maine to AlabamaExtend 1,600 milesMore than 400 million years oldHave been eroded by the elements1200 ft ft. elevation
13 Interior LowlandsMainly level land covers a huge expanse of North AmericaFlattened by huge glaciers thousands of years ago.Divided into 3 sub-regions:The Interior PlainsThe Great PlainsCanadian Shield; largest, 2 million sq.miles
14 The Western MountainsMassive, rugged Rocky Mountains (youngest US range)Extends 3,000 miles from Alaska to New MexicoRelatively young = 80 million years oldPeaks more than 12,000 ftHighest peak is Mt. McKinley located in 20,320 feet
15 The Continental Divide Line of highest points in the Rockies that marks the separation b/w rivers flowing eastward and westward.
16 Interior Plains 1.Between Appalachian Mts. & Mississippi River 2. Known as “America’s Breadbasket” – Most productive soil in the world.3. Mississippi Drainage Basin – rivers that drain into Mississippi RiverOhio RiverTennessee River
18 Rivers St. Lawrence R. Columbia R. Missouri R. Hudson R. Potomac R. Mississippi R.Platte R.Ohio R.Colorado R.Arkansas R.Brazos R.Rio Grande R.Yukon R.
19 Great Plains . Between Mississippi River & Rocky Mountains Western part of the Mississippi watershed.Contains the Missouri, Platte, Arkansas, & Red RiversStretches from N. Montana to Central TexasTreeless region
27 Lake Okeechobee, FLOkeechobee is Swamp Land in Southern Florida
28 The IslandsCanada’s northernmost lands are islands riding the icy seas near the Arctic Circle3 islands are:EllesmereVictoriaBaffinUS islands created by volcanic activityAleutian Islandsrugged & treelessOff the coast of AlaskaHawaiian Islands
29 Resources US & Canada’s most important industries: Agricultural Industrial
30 Great Lakes Huron Ontario Michigan Erie Superior These lakes & the St. Lawrence river form one of the world’s major shipping routes.
31 Ocean’s & WaterwaysLongest & busiest river system is Mississippi-Missouri-OhioMississippi River runs almost the length of the 2,357 miles long.Main tributaries - Ohio & Missouri Rivers.Canada’s longest river = Mackenzie River flows to Arctic Ocean
36 Minerals & Fossil Fuels Canadian shield has rich deposits of:Iron oreNickelCopper = $$ for USGold = $$ for USUraniumCoal - Appalachian Highlands & northern Great PlainsOil & Natural Gas - Great Plains, Alaska, & along the Gulf of Mexico
37 Minerals & Fossil Fuels The US is the Largest consumer of energy resources60% of energy is imported from middle eastern countries (OPEC> Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)
39 Climate & Vegetation Most of the US lies in the mid-latitudes Climate are moderateCanada is colder b/c it lies far north (high latitudes)Canada & US share similar climates along the joint border, Alaska & Yukon or Northwest Territories.
41 Colder ClimatesA sub arctic climate (tundra) is along the coast of Alaska & CanadaPermafrost would be found in AlaskaRocky Mountains & the Pacific ranges have highland climate & vegetation.See map on page 125
42 Moderate ClimatesA humid continental climate can be found in central & northeastern US & southern Canada.Most of Canada’s population is found in the humid continental climate.
44 Milder ClimatesMilder, dry and tropical climates of N. America are found south of 40* latitude.Much of the US is located here.Most southern states have a humid subtropical climateGreat plains & northern parts of the Great Basin have Semiarid climateHouston has a Humid Subtropical climate
45 Milder Climates Southern California has a Mediterranean climate Mojave and the Sonoran are large desert areas of the Southwest.Only Hawaii and southern Florida have tropical climates.Mount Waialeale on Hawaii is one of the wettest spots on earth. It receives about 460 inches of rain per year.Canada has no desert, humid subtropical, Mediterranean, or tropical climates.
52 Extreme WeatherAn area of extreme weather in the Great Plains is called “Tornado Alley”Violent thunderstorms, tornadoes and blizzards are caused by warm air from the Gulf of Mexico meeting the cold Canadian air masses.
53 Settlement The 1st inhabitants of N. America were Nomads from Asia Beringia was a land bridge connecting Siberia & Alaska
54 SettlementMost early Americans settled along coastlines and near rivers and streamsAbout 3000 years ago agriculture replaced hunting & gathering as the primary method of food production
55 SettlementEarly American vegetables like corn, beans, & squash are now food staples around the world. Agriculture remains a huge activity in Canada & US.
56 Building Cities Early cities built mainly around water sources. Other factors that affect where cities are build include:ClimateWeatherLandscapeAvailability of natural resourcesJamestown established in May 1607
57 Building Cities Canada’s 2nd largest city is Montréal, Quebec It’s located on a large island where the St. Lawrence & Ottawa rivers meetIn order to make living easier in here, much of the city has been developed underground
59 Building CitiesLos Angeles expanded into valleys & desert like foothills to handle all the people pouring in the areaLarge populations caused air pollution, inadequate water supplies and construction on earthquake-threatened landLos Angeles’ metropolitan area spreads over 4,060 square miles.Los Angeles settled in 1781 by Spain.
61 Overcoming DistancesObstacles faced by early settlers in moving across N. America were huge distances, large bodies of water, difficult landforms, & harsh climates.Early settlers carved overland trails in order to move inland called:National & Wilderness roadsOregon trailSante Fe TrailThey also used inland waterways such as the Mississippi & Ohio Rivers.
64 Inland WaterwaysThey built a network of canals to connect bodies of waterThe Erie canal was the 1st navigable waterway b/w the Atlantic & the Great Lakes was built in 1825N. America’s most important deepwater ship route—the St. Lawrence SeawayIt was a joint project of the US & Canada
65 Great Mississippi Flood, 1993 St. Louis, MO before the floodSt. Louis, MO during the floodMississippi Riverfloods dueto weather.St. Louis, MO after the flood
66 Railroads Today, the US has the world’s largest railway system The 1st transcontinental railroad was completed across the US in 1869.
71 HighwaysCanada’s primary roadway is called The Trans-Canada Highway & stretches about 4,860 milesThe US interstate highway system began in the 1950’s and is a network of more than 46,000 miles of roads.