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Chapter 4 Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences ____________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences ____________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences ____________________

2 Gender Self-Concept Gender identity: One’s self-definition as female or male Most people establish a gender identity consistent with their external reproductive organs Across gender identity, people vary in their gender attitudes: beliefs about the appropriate traits, interests, behaviors, and roles of females and males ______________________

3 Theories of Gender Typing
Gender typing: the acquisition of the traits, behaviors, and roles that are generally associated with one’s gender _____________________

4 Theories of Gender Typing
Psychoanalytic theory (Sigmund Freud): gender typing stems from children’s awareness of anatomical differences between females and males combined with their strong inborn sexual urges Oedipus complex Castration anxiety Identification Penis envy _____________________

5 Theories of Gender Typing
Social learning theory (BF Skinner , Walter Mischel, Albert Bandura): children acquire behaviors associated with their gender because associated with positive reinforcement or punishment OR those behaviors are more likely to be imitated. Reinforcement and punishment Observational learning (Social cognitive theory) _____________________

6 Theories of Gender Typing
Cognitive developmental theory (Lawrence Kohlberg): Children are active learners, attempting to make sense of the social environment Gender constancy: the belief that gender is permanent regardless of changes in age, behavior, or appearance _____________________

7 Theories of Gender Typing
Gender schema theory (Sandra Bem) Children develop an interrelated set of ideas (schema) about gender that guides their social perceptions and actions Gender schema development stems from learning the gender norms and practices of society Individuals vary in the extent to which they use gender schemas to understand and evaluate others and to guide their own behavior _____________________

8 Prenatal Development Prenatal sex differentiation: The biological processes that influence the making of our physical sex _____________________

9 Prenatal Development Stages of prenatal sex differentiation
Chromosomes Gonadal development Androgens Estrogens Development of internal reproductive organs External genitalia Brain differentiation _____________________

10 Prenatal Development

11 Prenatal Development

12 Prenatal Development Intersexuality: The intermingling of female and male sexual characteristics Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) _____________________

13 Prenatal Development 1/3000 females
Turner syndrome 1/3000 females Single X chromosome (XO) : small, unable to reproduce, stubby fingers, webbed neck

14 Prenatal Development XXY: Sterility, feminine traits 1/200 males
Klinefelter’s syndrome 1/200 males XXY: Sterility, feminine traits

15 Prenatal Development Androgen- insensitivity syndrome Born XY
Inability of receptors to receive testosterone

16 Prenatal Development 5 alpha-reductase and 17- beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency “guevedoces”

17 Prenatal Development Development of intersexuality
Effects of prenatal hormones on gender-related interests and activities Prenatal experiences and gender of rearing Sexual orientation Research challenges _____________________

18 Prenatal development The John/Joan Case
David Reimer “As Nature Made Him” Transgender (Gender Identity Disorder)

19 Gender-Related Traits
Individuals vary in the extent to which they conform to stereotyped expectations about their gender Femininity Masculinity Androgyny Undifferentiation _____________________

20 Gender-Related Traits
Changes in gender-related traits over time Women’s scores on masculinity have increased since the 1970s. Young women today are more likely than their counterparts in the 1970s to have experienced and been encouraged toward roles that involve male-stereotyped characteristics _____________________

21 Gender-Related Traits
Gender-related traits and psychological adjustment Research demonstrates that positive aspects of masculinity (e.g., independence, mastery) are associated with positive psychological well-being Male-related traits are more highly valued in North American society _____________________

22 Gender Attitudes People differ in the extent to which they believe that gender should dictate females’ and males’ roles Traditional gender attitude: the belief that females should engage in communal behaviors and roles and males should engage in agentic behaviors and roles Nontraditional or egalitarian gender attitude: the belief that behaviors and roles should not be gender specific _____________________

23 What do you think? Should gender dictate roles? _____________________

24 What are your gender attitudes?
On a scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree), indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statements: The husband should be the head of the family Keeping track of a child’s out-of-school activities should be mostly the mother’s responsibility Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for female students A person should generally be more polite to a woman than to a man It is more appropriate for a mother rather than a father to change their baby’s diaper It is wrong for a man to enter a traditionally female career Things work out best in a marriage if a husband leaves his hands off domestic tasks Women can handle pressures from their jobs as well as men can Choice of college is not as important for women as for men _____________________

25 Gender Attitudes Perceived value of female versus male gender- related attributes College students associate more advantages with being male than being female Advantages and disadvantages associated with each gender _____________________

26 Gender Attitudes Males who violate gender expectations are evaluated more negatively than females Social status hypothesis: because the male gender role is more highly valued than the female role is, a male is seen as lowering his social status by engaging in female-stereotypic behaviors, whereas a female performing male-stereotypic behaviors is perceived as raising hers Sexual orientation hypothesis: cross-gender behavior in boys but not girls is considered a sign of actual or potential same-sex sexual orientation _____________________

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