Presentation on theme: "By Prof. Prasanta De Centre for Environmental Planning & Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lecture on Concept of SEP: An Understanding at Local, State and National Level ByProf. Prasanta DeCentre for Environmental Planning & TechnologyAhmedabad, January, 2003.Prepared For:Disaster Management InstituteHousing & Environment Department Got. of MPParyavaran Parisar, E-5, Area Colony,Bhopal, MP.
2 Urban Spatial Planning History in India: British colonial planning in India (Improvement Trust in some towns and cities:TP schemes in Gujarat and Maharashtra--Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915New towns in independent India:- Chandigarh, Bhubaneshwar, Gandhinagar capital town, Durgapur industrial town, etc.Delhi -- Creation of development authority by Delhi Development Authority Act, 1957.
3 Urban Spatial Planning History in India: Urban development plan, Model Town Planning Act, 1960State Town Planning Act which include Urban Development Plan and Regional Plan:Essentially urban land use plan.The plan designates use of land, types of building that could be constructed on land and provision of future roads and other major amenities.
4 Environmental Concerns in India: 1. WILDLIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972It is Central Act. At the same time most of the States also have enacted its own act for the protection of the wildlife.2. THE WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1974Problem was Perceived pollution of river water.3. FOREST CONSERVATION ACT, 1980Conservation of forest areas.
5 Environmental Concerns in India: 4. THE AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981- increasing industrialization;- tendency of the majority of the industries to congregate in urban areas.5. THE ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986- Earlier Acts were specific Actsincreasing pollution,loss of vegetal cover (loss of forest cover)lack of biological diversity (loss of endangered species)excessive concentrations of harmful chemicals in the ambient atmosphere and in food chains (Atmospheric pollution)growing risks of environmental accidents and threat to life support systems.
6 Different Approaches to Environmental protection: Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA):procedure to comprehensively incorporate environmental consideration into licensing procedure for individual project. It is British and American practice which has also been adopted by India.Project Require Environmental Clearance (1994):The 29 projects of the Schedule-I can be categorized- Industries- Mining- Thermal Power Plants- River Valley- Ports, Harbours and Airports- Communication- Atomic Energy- Transportation (Rail, Road, Highway)- Tourism (including hotels, beach resorts)
7 Spatial Development in India at Various Levels of Governance: Housing:Private Plot holders (Local); State Hosing Board (State) Water Supply and Drainage networks, treatment (Local, State) Parks playground, Sports (State, Local) Roads: National Highways (National) State Highways (State PWD) Local Town Roads (Local Authority) Railways (National) Industries (State, National)
8 Spatial Development in India at Various Levels of Governance: River and Sea Ports (National, State)Air Ports (National)River development and controls and Waterways (National)Forest Development and Conservation (State)Agricultural Development (State)Irrigation (State)Mining and Quarrying (National, State)Cultural and Historical (National, State)Tourism Development (State, National)
9 Planning Approaches at various Levels: We have Sectoral Plan at National and State levelTourismState Industrial Plan (industrial estates)Railways (National)Forest development and conservation Plan (State level)Irrigation Plan (State level)National Ports (National)
10 What is the Context of Spatial Plan in India? Urban Development Plan of major citiesContent of Urban Development Plan?- Preparation of Land use Plan- Regulations for controlling building development and usage of building constructed over urban land.
11 Concept of Space, Environment and Spatial Planning Planning Space:It needs understanding of what constitutes Space;Space is land surface. It is above and below the land surface. It includes various kinds of land surfaces. Space also means water on the land surface and under the land surface. It includes air above the land surface as well;Then Space is environment;Planning is essentially allocations, organisations and regulating human activities and functions over the land that means Space.Therefore, Spatial planning is ideally, rather should necessarily be said planning the environment. Hence spatial Planning is essentially be Spatial Environmental Planning (SEP)
12 The Concept of Spatial Environmental Planning (SEP): Comprehensive incorporation of environmental considerations in planning and in project licensing is another way of dealing with environmental protection.One could develop and use the existing spatial planning system as instrument to protect the environment in a comprehensive, holistic manner. Environmental objectives play a predominant role in spatial planning.
13 Problem with the Conventional Environmental Protection and Planning: Shortcoming of EIA:It is been a reactive instrumentIt comes only after the project idea is very far advanced (can not be changed and sited elsewhere)Lack of co-ordination in all existing EIA systems.
14 Conceptual Approach to Spatial Environmental Planning: Use of land according to its natural (environmental) suitability. The use does not adversely affect its natural conditions and/or its natural functions on a sustainable basis.Restoration, rehabilitation of land and land based resources already degraded by human activities.Reservation of ecologically sensitive areas, important landscape and respective ecosystems so that their functions towards the nature as well as to the society are sustained and preserved.Preservation and / or management of land based natural resources such as water (e.g. ground water)
15 Paradigm Shift in Governance and in Planning Administration : THE 74TH CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ACT, 1992The Constitution (74thAmendment) Act has set up a new conceptual trend in the process of decentralization and urban governance in India. With the enactment of the 74th Amendment of the Constitution, urban local bodies in the country have acquired a statutory status.There are 3 main types of urban local bodies (ULB) are decided in the 74th CAA, based on the certain criteria’s.Nagar Panchayat for a transitional area,Municipal council for small and medium towns.Municipal corporations for large cities.
16 Spatial Planning Functions at Local Level: Functions of ULBs:The 12th schedule of the Constitution has listed the following functions of the local bodies:1. Urban planning includes town planning.2. Regulations of landmasses and construction of buildings.3. Planning for economic and social development.4. Roads and Bridges.5. Water supply for domestic, industrial, and commercial purposes.6. Public health, sanitation, conservancy and solid waste management.7. Fire services.8. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects.
17 Spatial Planning Functions at Local Level: 9. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society including the handicapped and mentally retarded.10. Slum improvement and up gradation.11. Urban poverty alleviation.12. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds.13. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects.14. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation ground and electric crematoriums.15. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals.16. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths,17. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stop and public conveniences.18. Regulation of slaughterhouses and ternaries.
18 Spatial Planning at the Regional Level: DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTEES (DPCs):74th Amendment Act provides for constitution of District Planning Committees (DPCs) to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and municipality in the district and is prepare a Draft Plan for the district as a whole.With this provision, the integrated regional planning has been recognized by the Constitution where investment, its spatial impact and development are to be conceived.
19 Future Prospect and Need for SEP: There is need for Spatial Environmental Planning at Regional Level;District Planning Committee is Expected to Play useful planning function at regional level;Spatial Environmental Planning should be playing major role at Regional Planning scale.