Presentation on theme: "Do Now: Which of the following sentences need a comma?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Do Now: Which of the following sentences need a comma? Jim passed Coach Warner’s test but he did not get to play right away.One Army player tried to tackle Jim, failed, injured his knee in the process and had to be helped from the field.Ira ordered a rich chocolate layer cake.
2 Aim: When do you use a comma? Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clausesAfter an introductory phrase or clauseBetween all items in a seriesBetween coordinate adjectivesTo set off nonessential elements
3 Aim: When do you use a comma? A complete sentence has two components, a subject and a verb.The subject and verb must form a complete thought to be considered an independent clause.Key Concepts: This slide explains the structure of an independent clause, the primary building block for the development of any sentence. An independent clause requires a subject and a verb that can stand as a complete thought. Sentences can be very short, as the one detailed in the slide. The facilitator may ask the audience to identify the subject and verb in the example.Click mouse after text appears to reveal picture and sample sentence.Click mouse after sample sentence to reveal the labels “subject” and “verb.”The couple dances.The couple dances.subject (S) verb (V)
4 Aim: When do you use a comma? ConjunctionsforandnorbutoryetsoA sentence that contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction is called a compound sentence.A conjunction joins words, phrases, and clauses together in a sentence.Key Concepts: This slide explains the structure of a compound sentence and the role of a conjunction. An easy method for remembering the seven coordinating conjunctions is the acronym “fan boys.”Click mouse at the end of the first column.Click mouse at the end of the conjunction list to reveal the acronym.FAN BOYS
5 Aim: When do you use a comma? Rule 1: The comma in a compound sentence is placed before the coordinating conjunction.Andy built a snowman, and Jeff played with his dog.S V conj.Andy built a snowman, andJeff played with his dog.S VExample: This slide exemplifies the location of a comma in a compound sentence, before the coordinating conjunction. The facilitator may ask participants to identify the subjects, verbs, and conjunction in the example.Click after example sentence appears to reveal parts of speech.
6 Aim: When do you use a comma? Where would you place the comma in the following sentence?Example: This slide provides participants with an opportunity to locate the correct position for the comma within the sample sentence. The facilitator may also invite students to identify the subjects, verbs, and conjunction in the sentence.Click mouse after sample sentence to reveal the comma.Click mouse after the comma to reveal parts of speech.Dan struggled with his homework so his father helped him.Dan struggled with his homework, so his father helped him.S V conj. S V
7 Aim: When do you use a comma? A dependent clause contains a subject and verb, but the clause cannot stand independently.Dependent clauses can often be identified by the use of dependent clause markers.Some dependent clause markers:becausesincewhenwhileuntilifasthoughalthoughunlessafterbeforeoncewhetherKey Concepts: This slide explains the definition of a dependent clause. The dependent clause markers can help writers identify clauses that cannot stand alone within a sentence.
8 Introductory clause= dependent clause located at the beginning of a sentence Rule 2: When a dependent clause is placed at the beginning of a sentence, place a comma between the independent clause and the dependent clause.Key Concepts: An introductory clause is a dependent clause located at the beginning of a sentence. After an introductory clause, a comma is needed to distinguish it from the independent clause.Activity: The facilitator may choose to ask students to identify the independent and dependent clauses, the subjects, the verbs, and the dependent clause marker in the sample sentence.Click mouse to reveal the parts of speech.When Elizabeth called 911, the firemen rushed to her rescue.When Elizabeth called 911, the firemen rushed to her rescue. DCM S V S V
9 Aim: When do you use a comma? Where would you place the comma in the following examples?Since it was raining, we decided to go to the movies. DCM S V S VSince it was raining we decided to go to the movies.Once the movie began, I fell asleep.DCM S V S VOnce the movie began I fell asleep.Activity: This interactive slide invites participants to place commas after the introductory clauses in each sentence. Again, the facilitator may ask students to identify the parts of speech in each example.Click mouse to reveal parts of speech, and then click again to reveal each example.After the movie ended, we went out for coffee.DCM S V S VAfter the movie ended we went out for coffee.
10 Aim: When do you use a comma? When a dependent clause islocated after an independent clause,DO NOT place a comma between the two.I went on the roller coaster because my brother dared me.S V DCM S VActivity: When a dependent clause follows an independent clause, commas are not used. Facilitators may choose to ask students to identify the parts of speech in each example.I became very sick when theS V DCMroller coaster zoomed upside down.S V
11 Aim: When do you use a comma? After INTRODUCTORY phrasesNear a small stream at the bottom of the canyon, the park rangers discovered the mine.Thinking his motorcade drive through Dallas was routine President Kennedy smiled and waved at the crowds.
12 Rule 3: Commas in a Series Commas should be placed in series of words, phrases, or clauses.Place commas in the following sentences:Martina brushed her hair, put on her pajamas, and went to bed.Martina brushed her hair put on her pajamas and went to bed.Activity: The facilitator may stress to participants that a series includes a list of words, but it can also include a list of phrases or clauses. This exercise allows participants to determine when the commas should be placed in each sentence.Click to reveal commas for each sentence.She fell asleep and dreamed that she was a princess, she kissed a frog, and she rescued her prince.She fell asleep and dreamed that she was a princess she kissed a frog and she rescued her prince.
13 When should you use commas with adjectives? Rule 4: Use commas to separate adjectives that provide an equal description of a noun.THE TEST:Can you put “and” between the adjectives?Can they be described in reverse order?If so, use a comma.Key Concepts: Students often find comma placement between adjectives to be tricky. The key is to determine if the adjectives are equal—meaning that they modify the noun in the same capacity. Adjectives of size and quantity are generally considered to be unequal to adjectives of character or quality. Placing “and” between adjectives or reversing the order of adjectives are good tests to determine if a comma is needed.big blue house three hungry kittensa cranky, ungrateful man
14 Aim: When do you use a comma with adjectives? CumulativeDo not modify the noun separatelyThree large gray shapes moved slowly toward us.CoordinateTwo or more adjectives that modify a noun separatelyRobert is a warm, gentle, and affectionate father.
15 Aim: When do you use a comma? The cold impersonal atmosphere of the university was unbearable.The 1812 Overture is a stirring, magnificent piece of music.My cats pupils had constricted to small black shining dots.
16 Aim: When do you use a comma? An essential clause or phrase is used to modify a noun.It also adds information that is critical to the meaning of the sentence.Essential clauses are NOT set off by commas.Key Concepts: This slide leads off a section about essential and non-essential phrases and clauses. Essential phrases and clauses—elements that add critical information to the meaning of a sentence—do not have commas placed around them.
17 Aim: When do you use a comma? The people who work in my office are so uptight!Example: This example illustrates the placement of an essential phrase within a sentence. The phrase “who work in my office” is critical to the overall meaning of the sentence; therefore, it should not be set off with commas.If the clause or phrase is eliminated from the sentence and the sentence no longer makes sense, the clause or phrase is essential.S essential phrase VWithout the essential phrase, this sentence does not make complete sense : The people are so uptight!
18 Aim: When do you use a comma? The martini that I had at Joe’s was much better than this one!Key Concept: The word “that” almost always indicates an essential phrase or clause.S essential VThe word “that” is almost always an indicator of an essential phrase or clause.
19 Aim: When do you use a comma? A nonessential phrase or clause adds extra information to a sentence.This information can be eliminated from the sentence without jeopardizing the meaning of the sentence.Rule 5: Always place commas around nonessential phrases and clauses.Key Concepts: This slide illustrates the difference between essential and nonessential elements. While commas should not be placed around essential phrases and clauses, they should be placed around nonessential phrases and clauses.
20 Aim: When do you use a comma? My brother, who lives across town, plans to throw a party!Example: Nonessential phrases and clauses can be removed from sentences without jeopardizing the overall meaning of a sentence. In this example, “who lives across town” is superfluous information; it is not critical to the main message of the sentence—the woman’s brother will throw a party for her.S non-essential VEven without the phrase the sentence still makes sense : My brother plans to throw a party!
21 Aim: When do you use a comma? S VSteve said that he would propose to me on Valentine’s Day, which is my favorite holiday!Example: This slide provides another example illustrating the placement of a nonessential phrase within a sentence. At the end of a sentence, the nonessential element should have a comma placed before it and a period after it. The facilitator may wish to stress that “which” often, but not always, indicates a nonessential phrase or clause.non-essentialUse commas to set off additional information
22 Would you place commas in the following sentences? If so, where? I am planning a trip to Paris which is one of the greatest cities in the world.I am planning a trip to Paris which is one of the greatest cities in the world.The place that I would most like to see is the Eiffel Tower.Activity: These examples allow participants an opportunity to test their comma skills.The first example needs a comma after “Paris” to set off the nonessential phrase.The second example requires no comma. The phrase “that I would most like to see” is essential to the meaning of the sentence. The sentence will not make sense without this essential phrase.The third example requires two commas, both before and after the nonessential phrase “who is one of my business contacts.” The main message of this sentence—that Pierre will meet this person at the airport—is clear without knowing the additional information about his identity.Click to reveal the comma placement for each example.No comma is needed. The sentence is correct.Pierre who is one of my business contacts will meet me at the airport.Pierre who is one of my business contacts will meet me at the airport.
23 How would you correct the following sentences? This semester I am taking calculus physics and economics.This semester I am taking calculus physics and economics.Calculus is my best subject, I am certain I will get an A.Calculus is my best subject and I am certain I will get an A.Although I am very busy I still find time to have fun.Although I am very busy I still find time to have fun.Activity: This slide invites participants to again test their comma skills.The first example requires commas between each element within the list.The second example contains a comma splice. The sentence may be corrected by the addition of a conjunction after the comma, turning the comma splice into a compound sentence. This example may also be corrected by separating the two clauses into two separate sentences, or by changing the comma to a semi-colon.The third example requires a comma after the introductory clause. The facilitator may wish to note that “although” is a dependent clause marker.The fourth example, a compound sentence, requires a comma before the conjunction. Commas are also needed after each element in the list.Click mouse to reveal comma placement for each example.Last weekend my brother visited me and we went to a football game a party and a rock concert.Last weekend my brother visited me, and we went to a football game a party and a rock concert.
24 Aim: When do you use a comma? Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clausesNo grand idea was ever born in a conference, but a lot of foolish ideas have died there.After an introductory phrase or clause.If thought corrupts language, language can corrupt thought.
25 Aim: When do you use a comma? Between all items in a seriesAll the things I really like to do are either immoral, illegal, or fattening.Between coordinate adjectivesThere is a mighty big difference between good, sound reasons and reasons that sound good.
26 Aim: When do you use a comma? To set off nonessential elementsSilence, which will save me from shame, will also deprive me of fame.
27 Aim: When do you use a comma? Jim passed Coach Warner’s test but he did not get to play right away.One Army player tried to tackle Jim, failed, injured his knee in the process and had to be helped from the field.Ira ordered a rich chocolate layer cake.