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Industrial Revolution

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1 Industrial Revolution

2 Do Now: 1. List 5 inventions from the past 200 years that you feel are the most significant in the development of the world as we experience it today! Explain you reasoning. 2. How does necessity help to create new inventions? Explain.

3 How do you think John Meyer feels about industrialization/modernization?

4 Preconditions? What do we need prior to being able to move forward technologically as individuals, or as a society?

5

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7 Text Analysis Ch. 20.1 pgs 609 to 612: labeled “New Economic Patterns”
Pick out 8 important facts from the reading

8 Keep these questions in mind as you read!
How did improvements in agriculture effect European development in the 1700s. What are preconditions [what has to occur before] to industrialization? Is industrialization an evolution or revolution?

9 Do Now: How might a typical day for a farmer and factory worker during the Industrial revolution differ?

10 Fact #1: Rising Population
1700s = 120 million / 1780s=190 million people Death Rate Decreases Made at home, cottage industry ( the putting out system), factory system expansion of trade networks / globalization

11 Fact #2: Agricultural Improvements
new staple crops  maize and potatoes More farm land

12 Fact #3: Importance of Textiles
Cottage Industry Guilds

13 Fact #4: Demand for Cotton
New methods of manufacturing / new inventions developed Water Frame  Machines

14 Fact #5: A Global Economy
Gold and Silver traded for goods Tea, spices, silk and cotton goods

15 Fact #6: Plantations Tobacco, cotton, coffee and sugar = high European demand

16 Fact #7: Slave Trade Triangular trade
Allowed for growth of plantations

17 Fact #8: Emergence of England
England and France built colonial empires France lost empire ca. 1763

18 Do Now Get a copy of “Britain’s Industrial Advantages and the Factory System” by Edward Baines from the front of the room. As you read, identify (as discussed by Baines) What advantages does Britain possess that allow it to industrialize? What were the factory system’s advantages over the domestic system of production?

19 Industrial Revolution Cause and Effects

20 Agricultural Revolution LABOR AVAILABLE FOR FACTORIES

21 PROSPERITY Natural Resources
INCREASED PRODUCTION

22 MONEY AVAILABLE FOR GRANTS AND LOANS
Stability

23 Do Now Get a “Factory Discipline: Factory Rules” reading from the front of the room. Answer: Describe factory life during the Industrial Revolution. Judging by the Berlin factory rules, what were the differences between preindustrial and industrial work routines? How might these rules have affected the lives of families.

24 Development of the Domestic System of Production
Domestic system developed in England Late 1600s-late 1800s Domestic system of production – “putting out” system Businesspeople delivered raw materials to workers’ homes Workers manufactured goods from these raw materials in their homes (typically articles of clothing) Businesspeople picked up finished goods and paid workers wages based on number of items Domestic system could not keep up with demand

25 Factory System Developed to replace the domestic system of production
Faster method of production Workers concentrated in a set location Production anticipated demand For example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would buy them.

26 Industrial Capitalism and the Working Class
Pre-Industrial Revolution rural families did not rely solely on wages for sustenance Owned their own farms or gardens where they raised most of their own food Made their own clothing Unemployment was rare Industrialization destroyed workers’ independence Workers in cities did not have the means to grow their own food or make their own clothing Workers relied entirely upon their employers for wages with which they bought everything they needed

27 Changing Employee-Employer Relationships
Domestic system Workers and employers knew each other personally Workers could aspire to become employers Factory system Workers no longer owned the means of production (machinery) Employers no longer knew workers personally Factories often run by managers paid by the corporation Relationships between employers and employees grew strained

28 Domestic System Factory System
Methods Hand tools Machines Location Home Factory Ownership / Kinds of Tools Small hand tools owned by worker Large power-driven machines owned by the capitalist Production Output Small level of production Sold only to local market Manufactured on a per-order basis Large level of production Sold to a worldwide market Manufactured in anticipation of demand Nature of Work Done by Worker Worker manufactured entire item. Worker typically made one part of the larger whole. Henry Ford’s assembly line (early 20th century) kept workers stationary. Hours of Work Worker worked as much as he/she would & could, according to demand. Worker worked set daily hours. Worker Dependence on Employer Worker had multiple sources of sustenance – other employers, own garden or farm, and outside farm labor. Worker relied entirely on capitalist for his/her income – urban living made personal farming and gardening impractical.

29 Problems of the Factory System
Factories were crowded, dark, and dirty Workers toiled from dawn to dusk Young children worked with dangerous machinery Employment of women and children put men out of work Women and children were paid less for the same work Technological unemployment – workers lost their jobs as their labor was replaced by machines Note: Silas Marner by George Eliot describes the changing textile industry due to technological advances.

30 Rights of Female and Child Workers
Women and children could legally be paid less than men for the same work Factory owners were more willing to hire them Male workers grew resentful English child laborers England had a history (going back to the 17th century) of training pauper children (even those younger than five years old) in a trade Poor children followed their mothers into factories Early male-dominated unions fought to banish women and children from the workplace Eventually this strategy was abandoned Women eventually won right to equal pay for equal work Note: It should be made clear that the workplace rights and limitations of women and children (and of workers as a whole) were gained incrementally. Teachers may choose to insert a slide listing that legislation of which they more specifically want students to be aware.

31 Improvements: Rise of Labor Unions
Before labor unions, workers bargained individually – “individual bargaining” Before factories, a worker could bargain for better wages and working conditions by arguing his or her particular skills But in factories, work is routine and one worker can easily replace another With labor unions, workers bargained together as a group, or collective – “collective bargaining” Organized groups of workers elected leaders to bargain on their behalf Used tools (such as strikes) to gain rights

32 Short Reading Exercise
Pgs in your textbook: “Young People in the Industrial Revolution: Child Labor” Answer questions 1 and 2 that follow

33 Poor Living Conditions
Factories driven solely by profit Businesses largely immune to problems of workers Factory (also company or mill) towns Towns built by employers around factories to house workers Workers charged higher prices than normal for rent, groceries, etc. Workers often became indebted to their employers Created a type of forced servitude as workers had to stay on at their jobs to pay their debts Considered paternalistic by workers Some employers had workers’ interests at heart But workers wanted to control their own lives Note: Pullman in Chicago, Illinois, is an excellent example of a well-intentioned factory town being disliked by workers.

34 Slum Living Conditions
Factory towns – often built and owned by factories Full of crowded tenements Few amenities Tenements – buildings with rented multiple dwellings Apartment buildings with a more negative connotation Overcrowded and unsanitary Workers were unsatisfied both inside and outside the factories

35 The First and Second Industrial Revolutions
The first, or old, Industrial Revolution took place between about 1750 and 1870 Took place in England, the United States, Belgium, and France Saw fundamental changes in agriculture, the development of factories, and rural- to-urban migration The second Industrial Revolution took place between about 1870 and 1960 Saw the spread of the Industrial Revolution to places such as Germany, Japan, and Russia Electricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homes Mass production, particularly of consumer goods Use of electrical power saw electronics enter the marketplace (electric lights, radios, fans, television sets)

36 The Spread of the Industrial Revolution
Mid-1800s – Great Britain, the world leader in the Industrial Revolution, attempted to ban the export of its methods and technologies, but this soon failed 1812 – United States industrialized after the War of 1812 After 1825 – France joined the Industrial Revolution following the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars Circa 1870 – Germany industrialized at a rapid pace, while Belgium, Holland, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland were slower to industrialize By 1890 – Russia and Japan began to industrialize

37 Do Now Based off your understanding of the Industrial Revolution thus far, identify the Political, Social, and Economic effects of Industrialization on England.

38 Results of the Industrial Revolution
Economic Changes Expansion of world trade Factory system Mass production of goods Industrial capitalism Increased standard of living Unemployment Political Changes Decline of landed aristocracy Growth and expansion of democracy Increased government involvement in society Increased power of industrialized nations Nationalism and imperialism stimulated Rise to power of businesspeople Social Changes Development and growth of cities Improved status and earning power of women Increase in leisure time Population increases Problems – economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc. Science and research stimulated

39 Social Structure Industrial Middle Class Industrial Working Class

40 The Emerging Social Structure of the Industrial Era
The Elite 5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy The Middle Classes Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class Professionals White-collar workers Middle class values in the Victorian period The Lower classes 80 percent of the European population Agriculture Skilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers 

41 The Emergence of Urban Society
New Urban Environment Growth of cities: by 1914, 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800) Improving living conditions Housing needs

42 Education Why did governments begin to push education?
New types of jobs Political goals

43 Education in an Age of Mass Society
In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle class Between 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12 State teacher training schools Reasons: Needs of industrialization Need for an educated electorate To instill patriotism Compulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women “Natural role” of women

44 Experience of Women New Job Opportunities Marriage and Family
Women’s Rights Emmeline Pankhurst

45 The Experiences of Women
Marriage and the Family Difficulty for single women to earn a living Most women married Birth control Female control of family size Middle-class family Men provided income and women focused on household and child care Fostered the idea of togetherness Victorian ideas Working-class families Daughters work until married 1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wages Material consumption

46 Movement for Women’s Rights
Fight to own property Access to higher education by middle and upper-middle class women Access to jobs dominated by men: teaching, nursing Demand for equal political rights Most vocal was the British movement Emmeline Pankhurst ( ), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903 Suffragettes Support of peace movements The New Woman Bertha von Suttner

47 Social Thought: Socialism
Socialists – viewed the capitalist system as inherently wrong Belief that capitalism is designed to create poverty and poor working conditions because of its end goal of earning maximum profits for investors Socialism – government owns the means of production Belief that if the government (“the people”) owns the means of production, these factories and industries will function in the public (as opposed to private) interest

48 Social Thoughts Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark First Socialists
Strove to create a fair and just system Community divided tasks and rewarded equitability

49 Robert Owen Utopian socialist
Owned a textile factory in New Lanark, Scotland Decreased working hours Improved working conditions and employee housing Shared management and profits with employees Proved that a socialist-based company could be profitable

50 Social Thought Socialism Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark
Communism – Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels Bourgeois vs. Proletariat

51 Marxism – Communism Economic Interpretation of History Economic changes lead to historical changes. Historically, the wealthy classes have held all power. Class Struggle History has been a struggle between the rich and the poor. In the Industrial Revolution, the struggle is between the Bourgeois capitalists (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (workers). Surplus Value Workers produce all wealth but receive only enough to survive. “Surplus value” (profit) of the workers’ labor goes to the capitalists. Inevitability of Socialism Industrial wealth leads to the concentration of wealth among fewer and fewer capitalists, while the living and working conditions of the proletariat grow worse. The proletariat will eventually rebel and create a socialist state. Note: Anti-Marxists might argue that Marx has been proven wrong because working conditions have improved. Marxists might argue that the struggle of the proletariat is not yet over. Still others might argue that Marx was right in some respects and wrong in others; that is, no truly socialist state has ever been created, but governments have established many socialist-type reforms and institutions. An interesting class activity is to have students create two lists—one listing the industries the federal government does control, and another listing those businesses which remain privately owned. This discussion should get interesting once the class starts discussing the federal government’s involvement with industries such as banking and automobile manufacturing following the recession of late 2008. Note: Marx referred to himself as a “communist” to separate himself from Utopian socialists.

52 Social Thought Utilitarianism – Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill
Suffrage Capitalism – David Riccardo & Thomas Malthus Laissez Faire “Iron Law of Wages”

53 Social Thought Liberalism Social Darwinism and Nationalism
Charles Darwin & Herbert Spencer

54 Social Thought With all of the possible hardships that can be associated with industrialization how did people find comfort in their daily lives? Methodism evangelical Protestant denominations founded in 18th century England by John Wesley

55 Methodism worldwide Protestant movement dating from 1729, when a group of students at the University of Oxford, England, began to assemble for worship, study, and Christian service. Their fellow students named them the Holy Club and “methodists,” a derisive allusion to the methodical manner in which they performed the various practices that their sense of Christian duty and church ritual required.

56 Art and Leisure Realism Romanticism Impressionism Tourism and Sport
Charles Dickens & Gustave Flaubert Romanticism Impressionism Claude Monet Tourism and Sport Thomas Cooke

57 Social Changes: Increase in Leisure Time
Labor-saving devices invented and produced Vacuum cleaners Washing machines Refrigerators Entrepreneurs and inventors developed new forms of entertainment Moving pictures Amusement parks Birth of the weekend Traditionally, Western nations had Sunday (the Christian day of rest) as the only day off from work Saturday was added to accommodate the religious observances of Jewish factory workers (whose Sabbath, or Shabbat, runs from Friday at sundown to Saturday at sundown)

58 Downside? Acute labor problems Workers guilds decline
Development of proletariat class vs. capitalist class Socialism and early utopian societies based on utilitarian ideas (utopian socialists): Scotland and U.S. = Robert Owen Communism

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60 European Population Growth 1820-1900
©2003 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. European Population Growth

61 Spread and Growth: 1900s Steel replaces iron
1831: Michael Faraday produces electric generator 1870: improved practical generator 1910: Hydroelectric power Thomas Edison: Light bulb 1876: Alexander Gram Bell: telephone Guglielmo Marconi: first trans-Atlantic radio wave transmission Subways Workers now could effectively/efficiently work 24 hours a day

62 The Automobile The Role of Science and Technology: The Automobile”
Pg. 691 in your textbook

63 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
New Products and New Patterns Substitution of steel for iron Electricity Internal combustion engine Increased industrial production Germany replaces Britain as industrial leader Europe’s two economic zones Toward a World Economy Products from all over the world Europe dominates The Spread of Industrialization in Russian and Japan Women and Work: New Job Opportunities

64 Organizing the Working Class
Karl Marx ( ) and Friedrich Engels ( ), The Communist Manifesto History is that of class struggles Overthrow the bourgeoisie Eventually there would be a classless society

65 Organizing the Working Class
German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875 In the Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve the conditions of the worker 4 million votes in 1912 elections in Germany Revisionists Reject revolutionary approach and believed in reform Trade Unions Right to strike in Britain gained in 1870s 4 million members by 1914 in Britain

66 Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
Created by the industrial system Transportation systems meant: Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities


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