2 Do Now:1. List 5 inventions from the past 200 years that you feel are the most significant in the development of the world as we experience it today! Explain you reasoning.2. How does necessity help to create new inventions? Explain.
3 How do you think John Meyer feels about industrialization/modernization?
4 Preconditions?What do we need prior to being able to move forward technologically as individuals, or as a society?
7 Text Analysis Ch. 20.1 pgs 609 to 612: labeled “New Economic Patterns” Pick out 8 important facts from the reading
8 Keep these questions in mind as you read! How did improvements in agriculture effect European development in the 1700s.What are preconditions [what has to occur before] to industrialization?Is industrialization an evolution or revolution?
9 Do Now:How might a typical day for a farmer and factory worker during the Industrial revolution differ?
10 Fact #1: Rising Population 1700s = 120 million / 1780s=190 million peopleDeath Rate DecreasesMade at home, cottage industry ( the putting out system), factory systemexpansion of trade networks / globalization
11 Fact #2: Agricultural Improvements new staple crops maize and potatoesMore farm land
12 Fact #3: Importance of Textiles Cottage IndustryGuilds
13 Fact #4: Demand for Cotton New methods of manufacturing / new inventions developedWater Frame Machines
14 Fact #5: A Global Economy Gold and Silver traded for goodsTea, spices, silk and cotton goods
15 Fact #6: PlantationsTobacco, cotton, coffee and sugar = high European demand
16 Fact #7: Slave Trade Triangular trade Allowed for growth of plantations
17 Fact #8: Emergence of England England and France built colonial empiresFrance lost empire ca. 1763
18 Do NowGet a copy of “Britain’s Industrial Advantages and the Factory System” by Edward Baines from the front of the room.As you read, identify (as discussed by Baines)What advantages does Britain possess that allow it to industrialize?What were the factory system’s advantages over the domestic system of production?
23 Do NowGet a “Factory Discipline: Factory Rules” reading from the front of the room.Answer:Describe factory life during the Industrial Revolution.Judging by the Berlin factory rules, what were the differences between preindustrial and industrial work routines?How might these rules have affected the lives of families.
24 Development of the Domestic System of Production Domestic system developed in EnglandLate 1600s-late 1800sDomestic system of production – “putting out” systemBusinesspeople delivered raw materials to workers’ homesWorkers manufactured goods from these raw materials in their homes (typically articles of clothing)Businesspeople picked up finished goods and paid workers wages based on number of itemsDomestic system could not keep up with demand
25 Factory System Developed to replace the domestic system of production Faster method of productionWorkers concentrated in a set locationProduction anticipated demandFor example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would buy them.
26 Industrial Capitalism and the Working Class Pre-Industrial Revolution rural families did not rely solely on wages for sustenanceOwned their own farms or gardens where they raised most of their own foodMade their own clothingUnemployment was rareIndustrialization destroyed workers’ independenceWorkers in cities did not have the means to grow their own food or make their own clothingWorkers relied entirely upon their employers for wages with which they bought everything they needed
27 Changing Employee-Employer Relationships Domestic systemWorkers and employers knew each other personallyWorkers could aspire to become employersFactory systemWorkers no longer owned the means of production (machinery)Employers no longer knew workers personallyFactories often run by managers paid by the corporationRelationships between employers and employees grew strained
28 Domestic System Factory System MethodsHand toolsMachinesLocationHomeFactoryOwnership / Kinds of ToolsSmall hand tools owned by workerLarge power-driven machines owned by the capitalistProduction OutputSmall level of productionSold only to local marketManufactured on a per-order basisLarge level of productionSold to a worldwide marketManufactured in anticipation of demandNature of Work Done by WorkerWorker manufactured entire item.Worker typically made one part of the larger whole.Henry Ford’s assembly line (early 20th century) kept workers stationary.Hours of WorkWorker worked as much as he/she would & could, according to demand.Worker worked set daily hours.Worker Dependence on EmployerWorker had multiple sources of sustenance – other employers, own garden or farm, and outside farm labor.Worker relied entirely on capitalist for his/her income – urban living made personal farming and gardening impractical.
29 Problems of the Factory System Factories were crowded, dark, and dirtyWorkers toiled from dawn to duskYoung children worked with dangerous machineryEmployment of women and children put men out of workWomen and children were paid less for the same workTechnological unemployment – workers lost their jobs as their labor was replaced by machinesNote: Silas Marner by George Eliot describes the changing textile industry due to technological advances.
30 Rights of Female and Child Workers Women and children could legally be paid less than men for the same workFactory owners were more willing to hire themMale workers grew resentfulEnglish child laborersEngland had a history (going back to the 17th century) of training pauper children (even those younger than five years old) in a tradePoor children followed their mothers into factoriesEarly male-dominated unions fought to banish women and children from the workplaceEventually this strategy was abandonedWomen eventually won right to equal pay for equal workNote: It should be made clear that the workplace rights and limitations of women and children (and of workers as a whole) were gained incrementally. Teachers may choose to insert a slide listing that legislation of which they more specifically want students to be aware.
31 Improvements: Rise of Labor Unions Before labor unions, workers bargained individually – “individual bargaining”Before factories, a worker could bargain for better wages and working conditions by arguing his or her particular skillsBut in factories, work is routine and one worker can easily replace anotherWith labor unions, workers bargained together as a group, or collective – “collective bargaining”Organized groups of workers elected leaders to bargain on their behalfUsed tools (such as strikes) to gain rights
32 Short Reading Exercise Pgs in your textbook: “Young People in the Industrial Revolution: Child Labor”Answer questions 1 and 2 that follow
33 Poor Living Conditions Factories driven solely by profitBusinesses largely immune to problems of workersFactory (also company or mill) townsTowns built by employers around factories to house workersWorkers charged higher prices than normal for rent, groceries, etc.Workers often became indebted to their employersCreated a type of forced servitude as workers had to stay on at their jobs to pay their debtsConsidered paternalistic by workersSome employers had workers’ interests at heartBut workers wanted to control their own livesNote: Pullman in Chicago, Illinois, is an excellent example of a well-intentioned factory town being disliked by workers.
34 Slum Living Conditions Factory towns – often built and owned by factoriesFull of crowded tenementsFew amenitiesTenements – buildings with rented multiple dwellingsApartment buildings with a more negative connotationOvercrowded and unsanitaryWorkers were unsatisfied both inside and outside the factories
35 The First and Second Industrial Revolutions The first, or old, Industrial Revolution took place between about 1750 and 1870Took place in England, the United States, Belgium, and FranceSaw fundamental changes in agriculture, the development of factories, and rural- to-urban migrationThe second Industrial Revolution took place between about 1870 and 1960Saw the spread of the Industrial Revolution to places such as Germany, Japan, and RussiaElectricity became the primary source of power for factories, farms, and homesMass production, particularly of consumer goodsUse of electrical power saw electronics enter the marketplace (electric lights, radios, fans, television sets)
36 The Spread of the Industrial Revolution Mid-1800s – Great Britain, the world leader in the Industrial Revolution, attempted to ban the export of its methods and technologies, but this soon failed1812 – United States industrialized after the War of 1812After 1825 – France joined the Industrial Revolution following the French Revolution and Napoleonic warsCirca 1870 – Germany industrialized at a rapid pace, while Belgium, Holland, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland were slower to industrializeBy 1890 – Russia and Japan began to industrialize
37 Do NowBased off your understanding of the Industrial Revolution thus far, identify the Political, Social, and Economic effects of Industrialization on England.
38 Results of the Industrial Revolution Economic ChangesExpansion of world tradeFactory systemMass production of goodsIndustrial capitalismIncreased standard of livingUnemploymentPolitical ChangesDecline of landed aristocracyGrowth and expansion of democracyIncreased government involvement in societyIncreased power of industrialized nationsNationalism and imperialism stimulatedRise to power of businesspeopleSocial ChangesDevelopment and growth of citiesImproved status and earning power of womenIncrease in leisure timePopulation increasesProblems – economic insecurity, increased deadliness of war, urban slums, etc.Science and research stimulated
39 Social StructureIndustrial Middle ClassIndustrial Working Class
40 The Emerging Social Structure of the Industrial Era The Elite5 percent of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealthAlliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracyThe Middle ClassesUpper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-classProfessionalsWhite-collar workersMiddle class values in the Victorian periodThe Lower classes80 percent of the European populationAgricultureSkilled, semi-skilled, unskilled workers
41 The Emergence of Urban Society New Urban EnvironmentGrowth of cities: by 1914, 80 percent of the population in Britain lived in cities (40 percent in 1800); 45 percent in France (25 percent in 1800); 60 percent in Germany (25 percent in 1800); and 30 percent in eastern Europe (10 percent in 1800)Improving living conditionsHousing needs
42 Education Why did governments begin to push education? New types of jobsPolitical goals
43 Education in an Age of Mass Society In early 19th century reserved for elites or the wealthier middle classBetween 1870 and 1914 most Western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between 6 and 12State teacher training schoolsReasons:Needs of industrializationNeed for an educated electorateTo instill patriotismCompulsory elementary education created a demand for teachers, most were women“Natural role” of women
44 Experience of Women New Job Opportunities Marriage and Family Women’s RightsEmmeline Pankhurst
45 The Experiences of Women Marriage and the FamilyDifficulty for single women to earn a livingMost women marriedBirth controlFemale control of family sizeMiddle-class familyMen provided income and women focused on household and child careFostered the idea of togethernessVictorian ideasWorking-class familiesDaughters work until married1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the husband’s wagesMaterial consumption
46 Movement for Women’s Rights Fight to own propertyAccess to higher education by middle and upper-middle class womenAccess to jobs dominated by men: teaching, nursingDemand for equal political rightsMost vocal was the British movementEmmeline Pankhurst ( ), Women’s Social and Political Union, 1903SuffragettesSupport of peace movementsThe New WomanBertha von Suttner
47 Social Thought: Socialism Socialists – viewed the capitalist system as inherently wrongBelief that capitalism is designed to create poverty and poor working conditions because of its end goal of earning maximum profits for investorsSocialism – government owns the means of productionBelief that if the government (“the people”) owns the means of production, these factories and industries will function in the public (as opposed to private) interest
48 Social Thoughts Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark First Socialists Strove to create a fair and just systemCommunity divided tasks and rewarded equitability
49 Robert Owen Utopian socialist Owned a textile factory in New Lanark, ScotlandDecreased working hoursImproved working conditions and employee housingShared management and profits with employeesProved that a socialist-based company could be profitable
50 Social Thought Socialism Utopianism – Robert Owen & New Lanark Communism – Karl Marx & Friedrich EngelsBourgeois vs. Proletariat
51 Marxism – CommunismEconomic Interpretation of HistoryEconomic changes lead to historical changes.Historically, the wealthy classes have held all power.Class StruggleHistory has been a struggle between the rich and the poor.In the Industrial Revolution, the struggle is between the Bourgeois capitalists (owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (workers).Surplus ValueWorkers produce all wealth but receive only enough to survive.“Surplus value” (profit) of the workers’ labor goes to the capitalists.Inevitability of SocialismIndustrial wealth leads to the concentration of wealth among fewer and fewer capitalists, while the living and working conditions of the proletariat grow worse.The proletariat will eventually rebel and create a socialist state.Note: Anti-Marxists might argue that Marx has been proven wrong because working conditions have improved. Marxists might argue that the struggle of the proletariat is not yet over. Still others might argue that Marx was right in some respects and wrong in others; that is, no truly socialist state has ever been created, but governments have established many socialist-type reforms and institutions. An interesting class activity is to have students create two lists—one listing the industries the federal government does control, and another listing those businesses which remain privately owned. This discussion should get interesting once the class starts discussing the federal government’s involvement with industries such as banking and automobile manufacturing following the recession of late 2008.Note: Marx referred to himself as a “communist” to separate himself from Utopian socialists.
52 Social Thought Utilitarianism – Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill SuffrageCapitalism – David Riccardo & Thomas MalthusLaissez Faire“Iron Law of Wages”
53 Social Thought Liberalism Social Darwinism and Nationalism Charles Darwin & Herbert Spencer
54 Social ThoughtWith all of the possible hardships that can be associated with industrialization how did people find comfort in their daily lives?Methodismevangelical Protestant denominations founded in 18th century England by John Wesley
55 Methodismworldwide Protestant movement dating from 1729, when a group of students at the University of Oxford, England, began to assemble for worship, study, and Christian service. Their fellow students named them the Holy Club and “methodists,” a derisive allusion to the methodical manner in which they performed the various practices that their sense of Christian duty and church ritual required.
56 Art and Leisure Realism Romanticism Impressionism Tourism and Sport Charles Dickens & Gustave FlaubertRomanticismImpressionismClaude MonetTourism and SportThomas Cooke
57 Social Changes: Increase in Leisure Time Labor-saving devices invented and producedVacuum cleanersWashing machinesRefrigeratorsEntrepreneurs and inventors developed new forms of entertainmentMoving picturesAmusement parksBirth of the weekendTraditionally, Western nations had Sunday (the Christian day of rest) as the only day off from workSaturday was added to accommodate the religious observances of Jewish factory workers (whose Sabbath, or Shabbat, runs from Friday at sundown to Saturday at sundown)
58 Downside? Acute labor problems Workers guilds decline Development of proletariat class vs. capitalist classSocialism and early utopian societies based on utilitarian ideas (utopian socialists): Scotland and U.S. = Robert OwenCommunism
61 Spread and Growth: 1900s Steel replaces iron 1831: Michael Faraday produces electric generator1870: improved practical generator1910: Hydroelectric powerThomas Edison: Light bulb1876: Alexander Gram Bell: telephoneGuglielmo Marconi: first trans-Atlantic radio wave transmissionSubwaysWorkers now could effectively/efficiently work 24 hours a day
62 The Automobile The Role of Science and Technology: The Automobile” Pg. 691 in your textbook
63 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity New Products and New PatternsSubstitution of steel for ironElectricityInternal combustion engineIncreased industrial productionGermany replaces Britain as industrial leaderEurope’s two economic zonesToward a World EconomyProducts from all over the worldEurope dominatesThe Spread of Industrialization in Russian and JapanWomen and Work: New Job Opportunities
64 Organizing the Working Class Karl Marx ( ) and Friedrich Engels ( ), The Communist ManifestoHistory is that of class strugglesOverthrow the bourgeoisieEventually there would be a classless society
65 Organizing the Working Class German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875In the Reichstag worked to pass legislation to improve the conditions of the worker4 million votes in 1912 elections in GermanyRevisionistsReject revolutionary approach and believed in reformTrade UnionsRight to strike in Britain gained in 1870s4 million members by 1914 in Britain
66 Leisure in an Age of Mass Society Created by the industrial systemTransportation systems meant:Working class could go to amusement parks, dance halls, beaches, and team sporting activities