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AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A.

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1 AHSGE Remediation Standards IV-V, Part A

2 • Recognize and analyze the factors leading to sectional division.
Standard IV, Objective 1: Identify and evaluate events, causes, and effects of the Civil War. IV, 1 • Recognize and analyze the factors leading to sectional division.

3 What congressional solution made California a free state and gave popular sovereignty to the New Mexico and Utah territories?  Compromise of 1850 (AHSGE): Attempt to settle slave state/free state tensions over the new territory (see map) that had been acquired from Mexico.

4 Clay's Compromise 1. Ended slave trade in the District of Columbia 2. A new fugitive slave law 3. Federal assumption of the Texas debt 4. Admit California as free state 5. Divide remaining Mexican cession into New Mexico and Utah and allow popular sovereignty to decide (in other words, let the people of each territory/state decide).

5 What part of the solution in the Compromise of 1850 upset many northerners?

6 Fugitive Slave Act (AHSGE): Of all the bills that made up the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act was the most controversial and it made abolitionists all the more resolved to put an end to slavery. Measures 1. Slaves had no right to a trial by jury 2. Slaves couldn't testify on their own behalf 3. Return to slavery only on the testimony of supposed slave owner 4. Court commissioner received $10 if rule for slave owner; $5 for accused slave 5. No time limit for groups to hunt possible slave

7 Passage of the Fugitive Slave Act made abolitionists all the more resolved to put an end to slavery. The Underground Railroad became more active, reaching its peak between 1850 and The act also brought the subject of slavery before the nation. Many who had previously been ambivalent about slavery now took a definitive stance against the institution.

8 Kansas-Nebraska Act (AHSGE): Gave popular sovereignty to the unorganized territory (see map)
What act supported by Stephen Douglas gave popular sovereignty to two territories just west of Missouri? 

9 I. Kansas-Nebraska Act A. Stephen Douglas' motive 1. Preserving the Union by enabling the Midwest to hold the balance of political power between the North and South 2. Uniting the Democrat party around a single issue 3. Encouraging construction of a railroad from Chicago to the West to guarantee a continuous line of settlement between the Midwest and the Pacific

10 B. Concessions for the South
1. Why? Douglas needed the South to agree 2. What were they? a. South wanted railroad to have route from a southern city to the Pacific b. Nebraska was North of parallel 36'30'', which under the Missouri Compromise could not have slaves

11 C. Results 1. Douglas forced to say Nebraska Act would override or supersede the Missouri Compromise 2. It split the Nebraska Territory into Kansas and Nebraska 3. It applied the principle of popular sovereignty to Nebraska and Kansas, but it was assumed that Kansas, closer to the South, would be slave

12 4. Anti-slavery supporters accused the K-N act
of violated the "sacred pledge" of Missouri Compromise 5. Southerners, originally indifferent, became furious when plan is assaulted 6. Vote on Act passes, but a clear sectional vote 7. Idea of free soil unites northerners

13 What political party was formed in the 1850's that supported the anti-slavery platform (also, it is known as the party of Lincoln)? 

14 Formation of Republican Party (AHSGE): In the 1850s, a new party arose in response to the failures of the Democratic and Whig parties, and the slavery issue (Lincoln a Republican). A. Coalition 1. Former Northern Whigs mad at Southern Whigs 2. Former Northern Democrats mad that Southerners dominated the party 3. Former Know-Nothings B. Issues avoided 1. Economic issues such as tariffs, banking, internal improvements 2. Immigrants/Catholic issues 3. Slavery issue C. Unity Issue--Bleeding Kansas (SEE NOTES) Trying times spawn new forces. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 divided the country at the 36° 30' parallel between the pro-slavery, agrarian South and anti-slavery, industrial North, creating an uneasy peace which lasted for three decades. This peace was shattered in 1854 by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Settlers would decide if their state would be free or slave. Northern leaders such as Horace Greeley, Salmon Chase and Charles Sumner could not sit back and watch the flood of pro-slavery settlers cross the parallel. A new party was needed. Salmon Chase Where was the party born? Following the publication of the "Appeal of Independent Democrats" in major newspapers, spontaneous demonstrations occurred. In early 1854, the first proto-Republican Party meeting took place in Ripon, Wisconsin. On June 6, 1856 in Jackson, Michigan upwards of 10,000 people turned out for a mass meeting. This led to the first organizing convention in Pittsburgh on February 22, The gavel fell to open the Party's first nominating convention, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on June 17, 1856, announcing the birth of the Republican Party as a unified political force. Horace Greeley The Republican Party name was christened in an editorial written by New York newspaper magnate Horace Greeley. Greeley printed in June 1854: "We should not care much whether those thus united (against slavery) were designated 'Whig,' 'Free Democrat' or something else; though we think some simple name like 'Republican' would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery." The elections of 1854 saw the Republicans take Michigan and make advances in many states, but this election was dominated by the emergence of the short-lived American (or 'Know-Nothing') Party. By 1855, the Republican Party controlled a majority in the House of Representatives. The new Party decided to hold an organizing convention in Pittsburgh in early 1856, leading up to the Philadelphia convention. As the convention approached, things came to a head -- and to blows. On the floor of the Senate Democratic representatives Preston Brooks and Lawrence Keitt (South Carolina) brutally attacked Charles Sumner with a cane after Sumner gave a passionate anti-slavery speech which Brooks took offense (he was related to the main antagonist of Sumner's speech, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler.) Both representatives resigned from Congress with severe indignation over their ouster, but were returned to Congress by South Carolina voters in the next year. Sumner was not able to return to the Congressional halls for four years after the attack. Brooks was heard boasting "Next time I will have to kill him." as he left the Senate floor after the attack. On the same day as the attack came the news of the armed attack in Lawrence, Kansas. As a direct outgrowth of the "settler sovereignty" of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, an armed band of men from Missouri and Nebraska sacked the town of Lawrence and arrested the leaders of the free state. The anti-abolitionists had made it clear that "settler sovereignty" meant pro-slavery. Labeled only as "ruffians" by Southern politicians, Horace Greeley was quick to decry both events as plots of the pro-slavery South. "Failing to silence the North by threats. . .the South now resorts to actual violence." The first rumblings of the Civil War had begun. The stage was set for the 1856 election, one which held the future of the Union in its grasp.

15 What famous court case upheld the right of slave owners as property holders and disallowed slaves to file court cases? 

16 Decisions (Taney, Chief Justice) a. Scott could not sue for freedom
Dred Scott decision (AHSGE):Supreme Court that decided on the side of slaveholders. Decisions (Taney, Chief Justice) a. Scott could not sue for freedom b. No black, slave or free, could be a U.S. citizen c. Congress could not bar slavery in the territories; therefore Missouri Compromise unconstitutional SEE NOTES Scott's beginnings were quite humble. Born somewhere in Virginia, he moved to St. Louis, Missouri, with his owners in 1830 and was sold to Dr. John Emerson sometime between 1831 and Emerson, as an Army doctor, was a frequent traveler, so between his sale to Emerson and Emerson's death in late 1843, Scott lived for extended periods of time in Fort Armstrong, Illinois, Fort Snelling, Wisconsin Territory, Fort Jessup, Louisiana, and in St. Louis. During his travels, Scott lived for a total of seven years in areas closed to slavery; Illinois was a free state and the Missouri Compromise of 1820 had closed the Wisconsin Territory to slavery. When Scott's decade-long fight for freedom began on April 6, 1846, he lived in St. Louis and was the property of Emerson's wife. The famous Scott v. Sandford case, like its plaintiff, had relatively insignificant origins. Scott filed a declaration on April 6, 1846, stating that on April 4, Mrs. Emerson had "beat, bruised, and ill-treated him" before imprisoning him for twelve hours. [3] Scott also declared that he was free by virtue of his residence at Fort Armstrong and Fort Snelling. He had strong legal backing for this declaration; the Supreme Court of Missouri had freed many slaves who had traveled with their masters in free states. In the Missouri Supreme Court's 1836 Rachel v. Walker ruling, it decided that Rachel, a slave taken to Fort Snelling and to Prairie du Chien in Illinois, was free. Despite these precedents, Mrs. Emerson won the first Scott v. Emerson trial by slipping through a technical loophole; Scott took the second trial by closing the loophole. In 1850, the case reached the Missouri Supreme Court, the same court that had freed Rachel just fourteen years earlier. Unfortunately for Scott, the intervening fourteen years had been important ones in terms of sectional conflict. The precedents in his favor were the work of "liberal-minded judges who were predisposed to favor freedom and whose opinions seemed to reflect the older view of enlightened southerners that slavery was, at best, a necessary evil." [4] By the early 1850's, however, sectional conflict had arisen again and uglier than ever, and most Missourians did not encourage the freeing of slaves. Even judicially Scott was at a disadvantage; the United States Supreme Court's Strader v. Graham decision (1851) set some precedents that were unfavorable to Scott, and two of the three justices who made the final decision in Scott's appearance before the Missouri Supreme Court were proslavery. As would be expected, they ruled against Scott in 1852, with the third judge dissenting. Scott's next step was to take his case out of the state judicial system and into the federal judicial system by bringing it to the U.S. Circuit Court for the District of Missouri.

17 Who led the massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, NE and led the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry? 

18 a. Northern abolitionists were
John Brown's Raid (AHSGE) raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia to arm slaves with the weapons he and his men seized from the arsenal. However local farmers, militiamen, and Marines led by Robert E. Lee killed or captured,. within 36 hours of the attack, most of Brown's men. Results: a. Northern abolitionists were incensed b. Southerners were incensed

19 Who won the presidential election in 1860? 

20 1860 election (AHSGE): Lincoln (Republican)--WINS (wasn't even on many southern ballots)
b. John Breckinridge (Democratic, Southern) V.P. under Buchanan, from Kentucky c. Stephen Douglas (Democratic, Northern) Senator from Illinois d. John Bell (Constitutional Union)  U.S. Senator from Tennessee

21 Democratic split (AHSGE): In the 1860 election, the northern and southern democrats split, leading to a republican victory.

22 The U.S. Civil War What state was the first to secede from the Union in 1860? 

23 Secession (AHSGE): South Carolina secedes in Dec
Secession (AHSGE): South Carolina secedes in Dec. 1860, immediately after the election of Lincoln.

24 Federal response (AHSGE): After much of the lower south secedes, once Lincoln take office, he appeals for 75,000 militiamen to suppress an insurrection in the Lower South. Upper South seceded when Lincoln proclaimed that an insurrection existed

25 formation of Confederacy (AHSGE):In February 1861, representatives from the seven seceded states met in Montgomery, Alabama to found the Confederate States of America. Montgomery, AL (AHSGE): location of the 1st capital of the Confederacy. Later moved to Richmond, VA

26 Fort Sumter (AHSGE): site of the first engagement between union and confederate forces in Charleston, SC. Began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate artillery opened fire on this Federal fort in Charleston Harbor. Fort Sumter surrendered 34 hours later. Union forces would try for nearly four years to take it back.

27 Northern goals (AHSGE): Reunite the secessionist states, even with the use of force.
Southern goals (AHSGE): peacefully secede from the north, but if necessary fight a defensive war.

28 What county in Alabama never seceded from the Union? 

29 Winston County (AHSGE):Winston County gained notoriety during the Civil War at the Looney's Tavern meeting where it was declared the "Free State of Winston" with plans to secede from the state though it never did.

30 What state was actually split over the decision to secede and eventually became two states?
Virginia What new state was created? 

31 West Virginia (AHSGE): Separated from Virginia and stayed with the Union.

32 • Identify and analyze the non-military events of the Civil War.
--Political What was the most famous of the Black military units to fight in the Civil War? 

33 creation of black military units (AHSGE): including the Fifty-Fourth regiment, were made up of free Blacks including the sons of Frederick Douglass, who were instrumental in the formation of the 54th.

34 The 54th On July 18, 1863, the regiment won undying glory by leading the bloody assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. In the attack nearly half the regiment was killed, wounded or captured. Colonel Shaw was among those who died. For his bravery in the battle, Sergeant William H. Carney became the first African American to earn the Medal of Honor, the nation's highest military award. The survivors of the Fifty-fourth went on to participate in the eventual capture of Fort Wagner several weeks later.     The Fifty-fourth continued to serve throughout the remainder of the war. They fought at Olustee, Florida; Honey Hill, South Carolina; and finally at Boykin's Mills, South Carolina.     The example of steadfast courage and heroism set by the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts paved the way for the enlistment of over 200,000 African Americans in the Union Army and Navy.

35 --Economic What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave 160 acres to western settlers? 

36 Homestead Act (AHSGE): Passed to encourage settlement of the west; Settlers received 160 acres and could gain title to the land by living there for five years. The federal government helped settle the Great Plains by passing the Homestead Act in  For $10, a settler could file for a homestead, or a tract of public land available for settlement.

37 The Homestead Act May 20, 1862 (U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. XII, p. 392 ff.) AN ACT to secure homesteads to actual settlers on the public domain. Be it enacted, That any person who is the head of a family, or who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and is a citizen of the United States, or who shall have filed his declaration of intention to become such, as required by the naturalization laws of the United States, and who has never borne arms against the United States Government or given aid and comfort to its enemies, shall, from and after the first of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, be entitled to enter one quarter-section or a less quantity of unappropriated public lands, upon which said person may have filed a pre-emption claim, or which may, at the time the application is made, be subject to pre-emption at one dollar and twenty-five cents, or less, per acre; or eighty acres or less of such unappropriated lands, at two dollars and fifty cents per acre, to be located in a body, in conformity to the legal subdivisions of the public lands, and after the same shall have been surveyed: Provided, That any person owning or residing on land may, under the provisions of this act, enter other land lying contiguous to his or her said land, which shall not, with the land so already owned and occupied, exceed in the aggregate one hundred and sixty acres. Sec. 2. That the person applying for the benefit of this act shall, upon application to the register of the land office in which he or she is about to make such entry, make affidavit before the said register or receiver that he or she is the head of a family, or is twenty-one or more years of age, or shall have performed service in the Army or Navy of the United States, and that he has never borne arms against the Government of the United States or given aid and comfort to its enemies, and that such application is made for his or her exclusive use and benefit, and that said entry is made for the purpose of actual settlement and cultivation, and not, either directly or indirectly, for the use or benefit of any other person or persons whomsoever; and upon filing the said affidavit with the register or receiver, and on payment of ten dollars, he or she shall thereupon he permitted to enter the quantity of land specified: Provided, however, That no certificate shall be given or patent issued therefor until the expiration of five years from the date of such entry; and if, at the expiration of such time, or at any time within two years thereafter, the person making such entry -- or if he be dead, his widow; or in case of her death, his heirs or devisee; or in case of a widow making such entry, her heirs or devisee, in case of her death -- shall prove by two credible witnesses that he, she, or they have resided upon or cultivated the same for the term of five years immediately succeeding the time of filing the affidavit aforesaid, and shall make affidavit that no part of said land has been alienated, and that he has borne true allegiance to the Government of the United States; then, in such case, he, she, or they, if at that time a citizen of the United States, shall be entitled to a patent, as in other cases provided for by law: And provided, further, That in case of the death of both father and mother, leaving an infant child or children under twenty-one years of age, the right and fee shall inure to the benefit of said infant child or children, and the executor, administrator, or guardian may, at any time within two years after the death of the surviving parent, and in accordance with the laws of the State in which such children for the time being have their domicile, sell said land for the benefit of said infants, but for no other purpose; and the purchaser shall acquire the absolute title by the purchase, and be entitled to a patent from the United States, and payment of the office fees and sum of money herein specified.. ..

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40 What act passed by the Republican dominated congress (during the Civil War) gave large land grants to states from the federal government?  Morrill Land Grant Act (AHSGE) gave federal land grants to states for the purposes of establishing agricultural and mechanical colleges 

41 Land Grant Institutions
ALABAMA Alabama A&M University Auburn University Tuskegee University ALASKA University of Alaska, Fairbanks ARIZONA University of Arizona ARKANSAS University of Arkansas University of Arkansas Pine Bluff CALIFORNIA University of California COLORADO Colorado State University CONNECTICUT University of Connecticut DELAWARE Delaware State College University of Delaware DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA University of the District of Columbia FLORIDA Florida A&M University University of Florida GEORGIA Fort Valley State College University of Georgia GUAM University of Guam HAWAII University of Hawaii IDAHO University of Idaho ILLINOIS University of Illinois INDIANA Purdue University IOWA Iowa State University KANSAS Kansas State University KENTUCKY Kentucky State University University of Kentucky LOUISANNA Louisiana State University Southern University MAINE University of Maine MARYLAND University of Maryland University of Maryland, College Park MASSACHUSETTS University of Massachusetts MICHIGAN Michigan State University MINNESOTA University of Minnesota MISSISSIPPI Alcorn State University Mississippi State University MISSOURI Lincoln University University of Missouri MONTANA Montana State University-Bozeman NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL COLLEGES (click here) NEBRASKA University of Nebraska NEVADA University of Nevada, Reno NEW HAMPSHIRE University of New Hampshire NEW JERSEY Rutgers - the State University of New Jersey NEW MEXICO New Mexico State University NEW YORK Cornell University NORTH CAROLINA North Carolina A&T State University North Carolina State University NORTH DAKOTA North Dakota State University OHIO Ohio State University OKLAHOMA Langston University Oklahoma State University OREGON Oregon State University PENNSYLVANIA Pennsylvania State University PUERTO RICO University of Puerto Rico RHODE ISLAND University of Rhode Island SOUTH CAROLINA Clemson University South Carolina State University SOUTH DAKOTA South Dakota State University TENNESSEE Tennessee State University University of Tennessee TEXAS Prairie View A&M University Texas A&M University UTAH Utah State University VERMONT University of Vermont VIRGIN ISLANDS University of the Virgin Islands VIRGINIA Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Virginia State University WASHINGTON Washington State University WEST VIRGINIA West Virginia University West Virginia State College WISCONSIN University of Wisconsin-Madison WYOMING University of Wyoming

42 --Cultural Draft opposition (AHSGE) with the manpower shortage on both sides during the war, both side started a draft (Confederacy first); it was resisted by southerners and New York had riots. The Confederacy passed its first of 3 conscription acts 16 April 1862, and scarcely a year later the Union began conscripting men. exemption and commutation clauses allowed propertied men to avoid service, thus laying the burden on immigrants and men with few resources. Occupational, only-son, and medical exemptions created many loopholes in the laws. Doctors certified healthy men unfit for duty, while some physically or mentally deficient conscripts went to the front after sham examinations. Enforcement presented obstacles of its own; many conscripts simply failed to report for duty.

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44 Under the Union draft act men faced the possibility of conscription in July 1863 and in Mar., July, and Dec Draft riots ensued, notably in New York in Of the 249, to-35-year-old men whose names were drawn, only about 6% served, the rest paying commutation or hiring a substitute.         The first Confederate conscription law also applied to men between 18 and 35, providing for substitution (repealed Dec. 1863) and exemptions. A revision, approved 27 Sept. 1862, raised the age to 45; 5 days later the legislators passed the expanded Exemption Act. The Conscription Act of Feb called all men between 1 7 and 50. Conscripts accounted for one-fourth to one-third of the Confederate armies east of the Mississippi between Apr and early Source: "Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War" Edited by Patricia L. Faust

45 What did Lincoln pass on Jan
What did Lincoln pass on Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion? 

46 Emancipation--strengthened the moral cause of the Union
Emancipation Proclamation (AHSGE): Lincoln declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free," Jan. 1, 1863 granting freedom to slaves in the Confederate states in rebellion  Emancipation--strengthened the moral cause of the Union Lincoln's political reasons 1. The desire to injure the Confederacy, threaten its property, heighten its dread, saps its moral, and hasten its demise 2. The need to gain the support of European liberals, who wanted a crusade against slavery 3. His intention to steal the political initiative from the Radical Republicans in Congress.

47 Despite this expansive wording, the Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. It also expressly exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Northern control. Most important, the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory. Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not immediately free a single slave, it fundamentally transformed the character of the war.

48 --Legal What did Lincoln suspend during the Civil War, depriving many citizens of their civil rights? 

49 Suspension of Habeas Corpus (AHSGE):During the Civil War, Lincoln (to limit pockets of secession in Union states), in certain regions, suspended the right of prisoners to appear before a judge. Habeas corpus says that authorities must bring a person they arrest before a judge who orders it. The U.S. Constitution says: "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it." But Lincoln suspended habeas corpus without waiting for Congress to authorize it. Lincoln's action meant that individuals could be arrested and held without formal charges being lodged against them. Taney ruled that Lincoln's order violated Article 1, Section 9, of the U.S. Constitution, which gave only Congress the power to suspend habeas corpus. Lincoln ignored the ruling. Congress ratified the suspension in 1863. Civil War scholars generally point to the large pockets of anti-war sentiment in the Union states as a justification for his wartime suspension of civil liberties.

50 Examine the military defeat of the Confederacy.
What was the first major battle of the Civil War?  First Battle of Bull Run (AHSGE): or Manassas; 1st major land battle in which Union soldiers were routed but Confederate soldiers did not pursue. Location: Fairfax County and Prince William County Campaign: Manassas Campaign (July 1861) Date(s): July 21, 1861 Principal Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS] Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230) Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750)

51 Result(s): Confederate victory
Description: This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia.  On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill.  Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops. Result(s): Confederate victory

52 What battle resulted in the single bloodiest day of the Civil War?
Antietam (AHSGE):Single bloodiest day of the Civil War; 23,000 soldiers were killed, wounded or missing after twelve hours of savage combat on September 17, The Battle of Antietam ended the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia’s first invasion into the North and led to Abraham Lincoln’s issuance of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

53 Other Names: Sharpsburg Location: Washington County
Campaign: Maryland Campaign (September 1862) Date(s): September 16-18, 1862 Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS] Description: On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the

54 Result(s): Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.)
Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. Result(s): Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.) Anteitam battle field on the day of the battle September 16,1862.

55 What battle in Mississippi resulted in a complete blockade of the south by the Union? 

56 Vicksburg (AHSGE)—strategically
important because this Mississippi battle gave the North control over the whole Mississippi River, and thus split the South into two parts. map from Ulysses S. Grant fights his way to Vicksburg: After crossing the Mississippi and leaving behind his supply lines, he struck at the rebels five times, captured Jackson, the state capital, and came up on the Confederate stronghold from behind. Union Casualties: 10,142 Confederate Casualties: 9,091 See notes

57 --Political What major three-day battle did the Confederates (under Lee) lose in Pennsylvania? 

58 Gettysburg (AHSGE): Pennsylvania battle that was a turning point in the war. Although Meade did not pursue Lee, the North celebrated this victory over the South. By the summer of 1863, the brilliant General Robert E. Lee was in command of the Army of Northern Virginia.  He decided upon  an invasion of the north, which would pull both armies from war torn northern Virginia, where most of the fighting had previously been. By invading the north and particularly, winning a victory in the north, it might cause disenchanted northerners to pressure the Lincoln administration to seek a settlement toward peace, thus ending the war. 1, 1863 Lee ordered several brigades to travel east to check their location and to forage for supplies for his troops. Northwest of the town of Gettysburg they met. A skirmish ensued and as the battle heated, word was sent back to both commanders that the enemy was found and reinforcement troops proceeded to the area. Over the next 2 days Lee’s army converged onto Gettysburg from the west and north while Meade’s army arrived from the south and southeast. Thus a battle never planned occurred simply by circumstance.

59 See notes http://www.gettysburg.com/bog/bogstory/story1.htm
The Battle of Gettysburg begins: On the morning of July 1, 1863, Confederate cavalry ran into Union horsemen on the Cashtown Road, northwest of town. Each side sent for help. The rebels got there first, and by afternoon had driven the Federals south of town, where they rallied into defensive positions on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. 2nd DAY The Battle of Gettysburg, the second day: By the morning of July 2, 1863, 150,000 Union and Confederate troops had converged on the little Pennsylvania town. The southerners occupied a line west of the Emmittsburg Road, along the Seminary Ridge. The northern men waited along Cemetery Ridge - a slightly more elevated crest that ran south toward two hills, Big and Little Round Top. Lee's plan called for an assault on the left, or southernmost, end of the Union line. 3rd day Pickett's Charge: At about three in the afternoon of July 3, 1863, Robert E. Lee ordered the most fateful assault of the war, against the center of the Union line. Union Casualties: 22,807 Confederate Casualties: 28,000 See notes

60 What Union general captured Atlanta and continued southeast to Savannah destroying everything in his path? 

61 Sherman’s March (AHSGE): the Civil War's most destructive campaign against a civilian population to prove to the Confederate population that its government could not protect the people from invaders.

62 Sherman's march frightened and appalled Southerners
Sherman's march frightened and appalled Southerners. It hurt morale, for civilians had believed the Confederacy could protect the home front. Sherman's March to the SeaSherman had terrorized the countryside; his men had destroyed all sources of food and forage and had left behind a hungry and demoralized people. Although he did not level any towns, he did destroy buildings in places where there was resistance. Sherman, however, burned or captured all the food stores that Georgians had saved for the winter months. As a result of the hardships on women and children, desertions increased in Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia. Sherman believed his campaign against civilians would shorten the war by breaking the Confederate will to fight, and he eventually received permission to carry this psychological warfare into South Carolina in early By marching through Georgia and South Carolina he became an archvillain in the South and a hero in the North.

63 I think it is absolutely necessary that we
should abandon our position tonight. . . Telegram from Robert E. Lee, in Petersburg, to Jefferson Davis, in Richmond, April 2, 1865 Richmond, the capital, surrenders leading to . . . t approximately 7 A.M. on Sunday, April 2, 1865, Ulysses S. Grant's army attacked Confederate lines at Petersburg, Virginia. By mid-afternoon, Confederate troops had begun to evacuate the town. The Union victory ensured the fall of Richmond, the capital of the Confederacy, located just 25 miles north of Petersburg. President Jefferson Davis received word of the events in Petersburg while attending services at St. Paul's Church in Richmond. He abandoned the capital late that night on a train bound for Danville, Virginia. Richmond, meanwhile, burned, as fires set by fleeing Confederates and looters raged out of control. Davis was eventually captured by Union soldiers, but not until May 10, 1865. See notes

64 What famous speech was given by Lincoln at a consecration ceremony where he reminded Americans of the basic ideal, "All men are created equal?"  Gettysburg Address: Approximately two minute speech by Lincoln at the dedication of the battlefield and cemetery in which he “rededicates” the war toward a “government of the people, by the people, for the people.”

65 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought
See notes Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.   Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate - we can not consecrate - we can not hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say The main speaker was Edward Everett, a renowned orator. When the board in charge of the event extended invitations to various national figures, it was expected that Lincoln would not be present, but he made his attendance a priority. Contrary to legend, he did not write his speech on the back of an envelope as he traveled to the ceremonies aboard a train. He had made two drafts of the remarks he planned to deliver. After Everett's two-hour oration, Lincoln spoke for only a few minutes. He began, "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He concluded, "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth." The ten sentences composing the speech received little attention at the time. Everett himself, however, appreciated Lincoln's eloquence, writing him, "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion in two hours as you did in two minutes." Through the years, the address, considered a model of its kind, has been much studied, proving one of his predictions wrong: "The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here."

66 here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for
us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. President Abraham Lincoln November 1863

67 --Economic Where did Robert E. Lee surrender to Grant in 1865? 

68 Lee’s surrender/Appomattox (AHSGE):On Palm Sunday, 1865 Lee surrendered to Grant signaling the end of the Southern States' attempt to create a separate nation. Lee's last campaign: Forced from his trenches at Petersburg on April 2, 1865, the Confederate commander led the remnant of his army westward in a desperate quest for food. Grant's huge force followed eagerly along behind. Union Casualties: 10,780 Confederate Casualties: 6,000 (plus 27,805 captured and paroled) See notes

69 Cost of war (AHSGE): after four years of Civil War, approximately 630,000 deaths and over 1 million casualties, the South was economically ruined.

70 • Identify and compare the successes and failures of Reconstruction
What was the program called that returned southern states to the Union, rebuilt the South's infrastructure, and attempted to protect the rights of free blacks?  Reconstruction (AHSGE): Plan to return Southern states to the Union, rebuild the South's infrastructure, and protect the rights of free blacks Unfortunately, how the Reconstruction was to be done was highly debated. Possibly because of Lincoln’s death, his more lenient (to the South) plan was not accepted by the Radical Republicans.

71 BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: A PROCLAMATION.
--Plans for Reconstruction Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction (AHSGE): (Dec. 1863) 10% of population must swear allegiance to the Union, Confederate officials ask for presidential pardons, and recognize emancipation (13th Amendment). Ten percent plan 1. State govts. could be formed when 10% of those who voted in 1860 (note: that does not include freedmen) swore allegiance to the Union and accepted emancipation 2. Confederate officials and military officers needed presidential pardons before participating in the new government BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: A PROCLAMATION. WHEREAS, in and by the Constitution of the United States, it is provided that the President "shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment;" and Whereas, a rebellion now exists whereby the loyal state governments of several states have for a long time been subverted, and many persons have committed, and are now guilty of, treason against the United States; and Whereas, with reference to said rebellion and treason, laws have been enacted by congress, declaring forfeitures and confiscation of property and liberation of slaves, all upon terms and conditions therein stated, and also declaring that the President was thereby authorized at any time thereafter, by proclamation, to extend to persons who may have participated in the existing rebellion, in any state or part thereof, pardon and amnesty, with such exceptions and at such times and on such conditions as he may deem expedient for the public welfare; and Whereas, the congressional declaration for limited and conditional pardon accords with well-established judicial exposition of the pardoning power; and Whereas, with reference to said rebellion, the President of the United States has issued several proclamations, with provisions in regard to the liberation of slaves; and Whereas, it is now desired by some persons heretofore engaged in said rebellion to resume their allegiance to the United States, and to reinaugurate loyal state governments within and for their respective states: Therefore— I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United States, do proclaim, declare, and make known to all persons who have, directly or by implication, participated in the existing rebellion, except as hereinafter excepted, that a full pardon is hereby granted to them and each of them, with restoration of all rights of property, except as to slaves, and in property cases where rights of third parties shall have intervened, and upon the condition that every such person shall take and subscribe an oath, and thenceforward keep and maintain said oath inviolate; and which oath shall be registered for permanent preservation, and shall be of the tenor and effect following, to wit:— "I,                  , do solemnly swear, in presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder; and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all acts of congress passed during the existing rebellion with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not repealed, modified, or held void by congress, or by decision of the supreme court; and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfully support all proclamations of the President made during the existing rebellion having reference to slaves, so long and so far as not modified or declared void by decision of the supreme court. So help me God." The persons excepted from the benefits of the foregoing provisions are all who are, or shall have been, civil or diplomatic officers or agents of the so-called Confederate government; all who have left judicial stations under the United States to aid the rebellion; all who are, or shall have been, military or naval officers of said so-called Confederate government above the rank of colonel in the army or of lieutenant in the navy; all who left seats in the United States congress to aid the rebellion; all who resigned commissions in the army or navy of the United States and afterwards aided the rebellion; and all who have engaged in any way in treating colored persons, or white persons in charge of such, otherwise than lawfully as prisoners of war, and which persons may have been found in the United States service as soldiers, seamen, or in any other capacity. And I do further proclaim, declare, and make known that whenever, in any of the States of Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina, a number of persons, not less than one tenth in number of the votes cast in such state at the presidential election of the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty, each having taken the oath aforesaid, and not having since violated it, and being a qualified voter by the election law of the state existing immediately before the so-called act of secession, and excluding all others, shall reëstablish a state government which shall be republican, and in nowise contravening said oath, such shall be recognized as the true government of the state, and the state shall receive thereunder the benefits of the constitutional provision which declares that "the United States shall guaranty to every state in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or the executive, (when the legislature cannot be convened,) against domestic violence." And I do further proclaim, declare, and make known that any provision which may be adopted by such state government in relation to the freed people of such state, which shall recognize and declare their permanent freedom, provide for their education, and which may yet be consistent as a temporary arrangement with their present condition as a laboring, landless, and homeless class, will not be objected to by the National Executive. And it is suggested as not improper that, in constructing a loyal state government in any state, the name of the state, the boundary, the subdivisions, the constitution, and the general code of laws, as before the rebellion, be maintained, subject only to the modifications made necessary by the conditions hereinbefore stated, and such others, if any, not contravening said conditions, and which may be deemed expedient by those framing the new state government. To avoid misunderstanding, it may be proper to say that this proclamation, so far as it relates to state governments, has no reference to states wherein loyal state governments have all the while been maintained. And, for the same reason, it may be proper to further say, that whether members sent to congress from any state shall be admitted to seats constitutionally rests exclusively with the respective houses, and not to any extent with the Executive. And still further, that this proclamation is intended to present the people of the states wherein the national authority has been suspended, and loyal state governments have been subverted, a mode in and by which the national authority and loyal state governments may be reëstablished within said states, or in any of them; and while the mode presented is the best the Executive can suggest, with his present impressions, it must not be understood that no other possible mode would be acceptable. Given under my hand at the city of Washington the eighth day of December, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-eighth. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. By the President: WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State. See notes

72 What amendment abolished slavery?
13th Amendment (AHSGE): Abolished slavery. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

73 What amendment guarantees protection of the laws for all citizens? 
14th Amendment (June 1866) (AHSGE):Gave citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. 1. Passed by Congress and required southern 2. Johnson opposed it because it denied states the right to manage their own affairs

74

75

76

77 Weakened by the Slaughterhouse cases of 1873
a. Federal government obliged to protect only basic rights of NATIONAL citizenship b. Federal government did not have to protect such rights against state violations SEE NOTES Slaughterhouse Cases, cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in In 1869 the Louisiana legislature granted a 25-year monopoly to a slaughterhouse concern in New Orleans for the stated purpose of protecting the people's health. Other slaughterhouse operators barred from their trade brought suit, principally on the ground that they had been deprived of their property without due process of law in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. The U.S. Supreme Court, with Justice Samuel F. Miller rendering the majority decision, decided against the slaughterhouse operators, holding that the Fourteenth Amendment had to be considered in light of the original purpose of its framers, i.e., to guarantee the freedom of former black slaves. Although the amendment could not be construed to refer only to black slavery, its scope as originally planned did not include rights such as those in question. A distinction was drawn between United States and state citizenship, and it was held that the amendment did not intend to deprive the state of legal jurisdiction over the civil rights of its citizens. The restraint placed by the Louisiana legislators on the slaughterhouse operators was declared not to deprive them of their property without due process.

78 What amendment gave the vote to African American males?
Fifteenth Amendment (AHSGE): Right of Citizens to Vote Section. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. caselaw.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment15 However, African Americans would be kept from voting using the Grandfather Clauses   The White Primary   Literacy Tests   Racial Gerrymandering

79 Radical Reconstruction (AHSGE): Congressional Plan that made it harder for southern states to be readmitted. Congressional Reconstruction Act of 1867 A. Placed South under military rule for a short time B. Quick readmission if states allow black suffrage C. Election of delegates to state conventions by southern black voters and whites C. Ex-Confederate disqualified from holding federal office could not vote for delegates to constitutional convention D. Ratification of the 14th Amendment

80 Southern military districts (AHSGE): the South was put under military control after the Civil War and divided into 5 military districts.

81 What were the laws called passed by southern states attempting to control freedmen and keeping them in a subservient position? 

82 Black codes (AHSGE): state laws (varied state to state) to control freed black and restrict their legal and civil rights. In South Carolina persons of color contracting for service were to be known as "servants," and those with whom they contracted, as "masters." On farms the hours of labor would be from sunrise to sunset daily, except on Sunday. The negroes were to get out of bed at dawn. Time lost would be deducted from their wages, as would be the cost of food, nursing, etc., during absence from sickness. Absentees on Sunday must return to the plantation by sunset. House servants were to be at call at all hours of the day and night on all days of the week. They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment." Corporal and other punishment was to be administered only upon order of the district judge or other civil magistrate. A vagrant law of some severity was enacted to keep the negroes from roaming the roads and living the lives of beggars and thieves." afroamhistory.about.com/od/blackcodes/a/blackcodes1865.htm

83 What were northerners called who moved to the South, voted Republican, and were scorned by southerners after the Civil War? 

84 Carpetbaggers (AHSGE) recent arrivals from the North, primarily former Union soldiers who hoped to buy land, open factories, build railroads, or enjoy the warmer climate

85 see notes John T. Wilder, known as the "Friendly Carpetbagger" was the leader of the Lightening Brigade of Indiana and hero of the battle of Chickamauga in Sept where he and his men armed with 7-shot Spencers John Wilder gave Thomas time to form a defense line. He was one of the 20,000 Union veterans who immigrated to the South by 1866, attracted by the possibilites of places that they had seen during their military campaigns. In September, 1865, he and his friend, Capt. Hiram S. Chamberlain of Knox County, purchased 728 acres of land in Roane County along the Tennessee River and founded the town of Rockwood with its Roane Iron Company, one of the first post-war industrial establishments in the South. Wilder would continue to hold interests in mining and cement and banking around Knoxville, Tennessee, and built the 300-room Cloudland Hotel on Roane Mt. summit in 1885 as a retreat for hay fever sufferers.

86 What were southerners called who voted Republican after the Civil War?
Scalawags (AHSGE): former Whig planters or merchants who were in the South before the war and held most of the political offices during Reconstruction

87 What southern secret society emerged during the Reconstruction that harassed, tormented, and killed blacks demanding equality?  Organized resistance groups (AHSGE): Many white Alabamians fought Reconstruction through the political process and also through the emergence of organized resistance groups. The Ku Klux Klan (answer to above question) was the most well known. Others were the Pale Faces and the Knights of the White Camellia.

88 What man served as president during Reconstruction and whose legacy (as president) is remembered as being very corrupt? 

89 Presidency of U.S. Grant (AHSGE): legacy includes the fact that his administration was very corrupt.
“I have acted in every instance from a conscientious desire to do what was right, constitutional, within the law, and for the very best interests of the whole people. Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent.”     “I have made it a rule of my life to trust a man long after other people gave him up, but I don't see how I can ever trust any human being again

90 End of Reconstruction (AHSGE): the north occupation of the South ended in when the Republican and Democratic parties affected a compromise concerning the 1876 election

91 Election of (AHSGE): Disputed election in which Hayes (R) gets the presidency in return for ending Reconstruction. In the end, returns in three states, South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana were disputed. Tilden was one state short of victory. Congress appointed a congressional committee to investigate. The committee decided to award all the disputed votes to Hayes. Hayes, in return, however, promised to end reconstruction. Hayes became the next President.

92 What congressional solution resulted in Hayes winning the presidential election in 1876 and Reconstruction ending? 

93 2. Filibuster broken by southern Democrats
“Compromise of 1877”(AHSGE):ended Reconstruction when the Republican and Democratic parties affected a compromise concerning the 1876 election with Hayes given the presidency. 1. Hayes given presidency 2. Filibuster broken by southern Democrats 3. Radical governments fall—Solid South begins 4. Army removed from the South 5. More federal patronage to southern Democrats 6. Federal aid for building railroads and other internal improvements

94

95 New South (AHSGE): After Reconstruction, Planter class tries to reestablish old order with as few changes as possible and Middle class wants a more commercial and industrial South. Politics after Reconstruction (AHSGE) Democrats re-gained control of the legislature and governor's office and, in the next year, rewrote the state’s Reconstruction constitution. The Bourbon constitution of 1875 was a victory for prosperous rural and small-town Alabamians who did not want to pay taxes to improve the lives of those less fortunate than themselves and who did not want to finance commercial development that did not benefit them directly. In particular, it was a victory for planters and merchants who dominated the Black Belt economy and government and who expected to maintain that domination (along with their influence on the state level) by controlling the black vote in their region. Industrialization

96 Basic principles of redemption
1. Laissez-faire—lower taxes for large landowners and an end to most social programs 2. White supremacy—included legally restricting the actions of freedmen 3. New governments A. Cut back on education and other social programs B. Embezzlement and bribery continued C. Small white farmers neglected

97 Industrialization after Reconstruction (AHSGE): Although capital was insufficient and industrialization would lag in the South, The founding of Birmingham is the best example of the development of a New South economy based upon industrialism

98 Race relations (AHSGE): during this time period was characterized segregation and disfranchisement laws and by brutal acts of mob violence (lynchings) against southern blacks. Schools (AHSGE): during this time period were segregated, in part, because of the court case Plessy v. Ferguson (‘separate but equal doctrine”). Examples: schools, churches, and family Churches (AHSGE): became more segregated as Blacks sought to exercise their newly won independence and power, while whites sought to retain their privilege

99 The story of the church in the years following slavery is one of a mass exodus from white churches into black denominations. Blacks sought to exercise their newly won independence and power, while whites sought to retain their privilege. This struggle played itself out in the church, the center of community life for both blacks and whites in the South. Among the many choices freed people made, choosing a denominational affiliation became the most important - and, potentially, the most dangerous, as choosing the wrong denomination risked provoking the ire of former slavemasters and their confederates. The Southern Methodist Episcopal Church had been the church most enslaved people attended. It claimed 208,000 black members. A year after the Civil War ended, only one-quarter of them remained. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and AME Zion established hierarchies of black bishops, deacons, ministers, and pastors that made them, effectively, churches with the soul of a nation. it soon became the most popular church among the freed people. When the Southern Baptist Convention first organized in 1845, black Baptists outnumbered whites, even though blacks weren't given the same rights and privileges. In 1862, one quarter of the four million freed people called themselves Baptist.

100 Jim Crow laws (AHSGE): enforced segregation
What were the laws called passed in southern states after Reconstruction that stripped African Americans of basic rights like voting?  Jim Crow laws (AHSGE): enforced segregation examples of Jim Crow laws

101 Blacks face severe hardships
1. 15th Amendment subverted through intimidation, loss of jobs, eviction from tenant farms, poll taxes, literacy tests, property requirement, and voter fraud 2. 14th Amendment subverted through intimidation, loss of jobs, eviction from tenant farms and Slaughterhouse cases 3. Slaughterhouse cases—Supreme Court said the federal government was obliged to protect only basic rights of national citizenship, and it did not have to protectsuch rights against state violations 4. Racism in the South including KKK and in the 1890s, and avg of 187 blacks lynched a year.

102 FACT SHEET FOR THE "NEW SOUTH,“
CA. 1880S TO WORLD WAR ONE In 1860 the South had 76% of personal income per capita as a percentage of the U.S. average. In 1880 and 1900, southerners only held 51% of per capita national wealth, and in 1920 only 62%. 

103 COTTON PRODUCTION IN THE SOUTH
BY DECADE: 1860: 5, 385,000 bales 1870: 3, 011,000 bales 1880: 5, 709,000 bales 1890: 7,363,000 bales 1900: 9,207,000 bales 1910: 11,015,000 bales Tobacco production followed a similar pattern of postwar decline and then rapid increase into the new century.

104 The literacy rate for southern whites
declined from 1875 to 1900, while the literary rates for southern blacks increased dramatically during this period. Literacy rates for both shot up from 1900 to Before 1900 there was not a singly publicly supported high school for blacks in the entire lower South, but the literacy rate rose to include nearly half the black population by 1915. 

105 In 1900, total income for blacks was
about 35% of total income of whites, nationwide.

106 In 1880, there were 16, 317 cotton mill
workers in the South. In 1890 there were 35,415 cotton mill workers. In 1900, there were 97,494 cotton mill workers in the region. The capital invested in cotton mills grew from 17,375, 897 in 1880 to 124, 596,874 in 1900. Value of cotton mill products rose from 16,356,598 in 1880 to 95,002,059 in 1900.

107 What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers rented land to grow crops? 
Tenant farming (AHSGE): The “tenant” is the cultivator of the land but not the owner. In return for the right to use the land, the tenant owes a rent.

108 From 1880 to 1900 the percentage of
white farmers in tenant of sharecropping situations rose, the percentage of landowners among white farmers declined. Among blacks, the percentage of landowners rose in the Upper South and declined in the Lower South. 

109 What type of farming existed in the south after the war where farmers were forced to share crops with landowners? 

110 Sharecropping (AHSGE): Farmers work a piece of land for a fixed share of the crop (usually ½).
It required no advance expenditures for landlord and helped share the risk of crop failures or fallen prices However, it rarely led to ownership or land and often led to deep debts sharecroppers, 1939

111 On sharecropping W. E. B. Bois once wrote that
"[t]he slave went free; stood for a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery."

112 Fifty years after the Civil War, 89% of
African Americans still lived in the South, while 1.5 million blacks moved to urban areas within the South.  From 1900 to 1920, the number of workers in manufacturing in the South grew from 627, 000 to 1.3 million, and the population of the urban South rose from 3 million to 5.3 million, a rate of increase faster than in the nation as a whole. 

113 Between 1882 and 1951, over 4,900 people were lynched in the U.S.; over 85% were black. 80% of lynchings were in the South. Until 1908, more than one hundred people a year were lynched.

114 11th Grade TERMS! V, 1 STANDARD V, OBJECTIVE 1. Identify and evaluate the events that led to the settlement of the West. • Identify and explain the closing of the frontier and the transition from an agrarian society to an industrial nation during the 1800s.

115 New states (AHSGE): With the removal of Native Americans to reservations, the western settlement movement (especially from ) would continue and lead to the creation of several new states.

116 --Indian tribes Army/Native American conflict: (AHSGE) Army encouraged white hunters to kill buffalo to end Native American nomadic life and force Native Americans onto reservations. What animal was hunted and heavily relied upon by Plains Indians? 

117 BUFFALO ANNIHILATION: (AHSGE) U. S
BUFFALO ANNIHILATION: (AHSGE) U.S. policy to destroy buffalo in order to end the nomadic way of life for Plains Indians

118 This is why the Buffalo was important to Native Americans:
Brains - hide, preparation Skull - ceremonies, sun dance, prayer Horns - cups, fire carrier, powderhorn, spoons, ladles, toys headdresses, signals,  D. Tongue - best part E. Beard - ornamentation F. Rawhide - containers, clothing, headdresses, food, medicine bags, shields,buckets, moccasin soles, rattles, drums, drumsticks, splints, cinches, ropes, thongs, saddles, stirrups, knife cases, bull boats, quirts, armbands, lance cases, horse masks, horse forehead ornaments, bullet pouches, belts G. Buckskin - moccasin tops, cradles, winter robes, bedding, breechclouts, shirts, leggings, belts, dresses, pipe bags, pouches, paint bags, quivers, tipi covers, gun cases, lance covers, coup flag covers, dolls H. Hoof & Feet - glue, rattles I. Meat - (every part eaten) pemmican (converted), hump ribs - jerky (converted), inner parts eaten on the spot This is why the Buffalo was important to Native Americans:

119 liner: container for carrying and storing water, cooking vessel
J. Four Chambered Stomach - first stomach content: frostbite & skin diseases, liner: container for carrying and storing water, cooking vessel L. Bladder - sinew pouches, quill pouches, small medicine bags M. Paunch - lining for buckets, cups, basins, dishes N. Skin of hind leg - moccasins or boots Buffalo Chips - fuel, signals, ceremonial smoking P. Tail - medicine switch, fly brush, lodge exterior decorations, whips Bones - knives, arrowheads (ribs) , shovels, splints, winter sleds, arrow straighteners, saddle trees, war clubs, scrapers (ribs), quirts, awls, paint brushes (hipbones), game dice Muscles - sinew: bows, thread, arrows, cinches, glue Hair - headdresses, saddle pad filler, pillows, ropes, ornaments, halters, medicine balls  T. Whole Animal - totem, clan symbol, white buffalo sacred, adult yellow rare-prized

120 Starting in 1865, in 21 years the Buffalo population would go from fifteen million
TO: 600 by 1886

121 Many Native Americans were forced to live on?
   reservations What great Apache leader surrendered to the U.S. in 1886?  Geronimo   Custer and his cavalry were destroyed by the who at what battle? Sioux, Little Big Horn

122 Who was the leader of the Sioux nation at the above battle? 
Sitting Bull The United States government attempted to settle Indians on plots of land to farm with what act?  Dawes Act What event resulted in over 200 unarmed Sioux being massacred by U.S. troops in 1890?  Massacre at Wounded Knee

123 - Settlement of the Midwest/immigrant movement
How had the plow improved during the late 1800s? 

124 Steel plow: (AHSGE) made it possible to cut through the tough plains grass and root system.
By the 1860s, farmers on the Great Plains were using newly designed steel plows, seed drills, reapers, and threshing machines.

125 Windmill: (AHSGE) allowed farmers to pump up water to supplement the
scant rainfall of the Great Plains

126 revolver: (AHSGE) In 1836, Samuel Colt was granted a U. S
revolver: (AHSGE) In 1836, Samuel Colt was granted a U.S. patent for the Colt revolver, which was equipped with a revolving cylinder containing five or six bullets and an innovative cocking device “the gun that won the West.“Single Action Army Model 1873 Peacemaker, designed to use metallic ammunition that contained its own primer. "Abe Lincoln may have freed all men, but Sam Colt made them equal."

127 Why did the open ranges used by cattle disappear?
Barbed Wire (AHSGE): invented by Glidden and helped end the open range. see notes Wire fences used before the invention of the barb consisted of only one strand of wire, which was constantly broken by the weight of cattle pressing against it. Michael Kelly made a significant improvement to wire fencing with an invention that "twisted two wires together to form a cable for barbs—the first of its kind in America," according to Henry D. and Frances T. McCallum, the authors of The Wire That Fenced the West. Known as the "thorny fence," Kelly's double-strand design made the fence stronger, and the painful barbs taught cattle to keep their distance. Predictably, other inventors sought to improve upon Kelly's designs; among them was Joseph Glidden, a farmer from De Kalb, IL. In 1873 and 1874, patents were issued for various designs to strengthen Kelly's invention, but the recognized winner in this series of improvements was Glidden's simple wire barb locked onto a double-strand wire. Glidden's invention made barbed wire more effective not only because he described a method for locking the barbs in place, but also because he developed the machinery to mass-produce the wire. His invention also survived court challenges from other inventors. Glidden's patent, prevailing in both litigation and sales, was soon known as "the winner." Today, it remains the most familiar style of barbed wire.

128 How did cattle ranchers move their beef back to eastern markets?
  What 19th century technological innovation led to the rapid settlement of the western territories? How did cattle ranchers move their beef back to eastern markets?  Railroads provided easy access to the Great Plains (AHSGE). Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at low prices and provided credit. 

129 Railroad improvement and expansion:
led to a tremendous drop in shipping costs and opened up a new network of markets. Freight rates that had been $60 per ton on the wagon train and then $30 per ton on the toll road, dropped to $12 per ton by railroad.

130

131

132 - Changing role of the American farmers
EARLY MECHANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE: allowed for larger crops to be harvested and fewer laborers (AHSGE) What types of new equipment was developed for farming in the late 1800s?  cornhuskers, cornbinders, steam powered threshers

133 List three complaints of farmers in the late 1800s.
FARMERS' GRIEVANCES: Included overcharging by railroads to ship farm goods, money supply issues (deflation), tariffs, and falling crop prices (AHSGE) This will lead to ….

134 How did the farmers organize themselves to fight big business? 
What was the name given to the farmers who organized themselves politically during this period?  American Agricultural Rebellion: which will include the Grange movement, the Farmers’ Alliance movement and the Populist movement (AHSGE).

135 Populist Movement (AHSGE): in the 1890s, this emerged to increase the political power of farmers and to work for legislation for farmers’ interests. Who was the presidential candidate in 1896 for the Populists?  James Weaver

136 Alabama farmers faced additional economic problems (AHSGE):
prevalence of sharecropping and tenancy; historic divisions between big planters of the Black Belt and Tennessee Valley and the small farmers of the Hill Country and Wiregrass; an emerging urban industrial society based on iron and coal; an emerging labor movement, especially among coal miners and the Knights of Labor; powerful railroads, especially the L & N and its connection with coal and iron companies.

137 V, 2 • Describe the concepts, developments, and consequences of
STANDARD V, OBJECTIVE 2. Evaluate the concepts, developments, and consequences of industrialization and urbanization. V, 2 • Describe the concepts, developments, and consequences of industrialization and urbanization. --Geographic factors that influenced industrialization

138 For example: mountains, rivers - Sources of power for new industries
NATURAL RESOURCES:(AHSGE) U.S. abundance of natural resources helped U.S. to industrialize. Geography: U.S. geography played a factor that influenced industrialization (AHSGE). For example: mountains, rivers - Sources of power for new industries COAL

139 --Sources of power for new industries
Oil: (AHSGE) became a readily available source of fuel for light, lubrication of machineries, and fuel to run machinery Triumph Hill, PA. Penn. was responsible for 1/2 of the WORLD'S production of oil until the East Texas oil boom of 1901

140 --Communication revolution
Transatlantic cable: (AHSGE) After several failures, Europe and North America were finally connected and allowed the two continents to communicate almost instantaneously From Heart's Content, Cyrus Field sent the following message on July 27, "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. All well. Thank God, the cable is laid, and is in perfect working order."

141 Who invented the telephone?
His most famous were the phonograph, electric pen, practical incandescent light bulb, carbon button transmitter for the telephone, fluoroscope, electrical distribution system for lighting, improved electric train, improved stock ticker,kinescope, and most importantly the research and development laboratory. Telephone (AHSGE) : Alexander Graham Bell patented the “talking telegraph” and set up the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (see notes)

142 The first phone call was Alexander Graham Bell saying
The first phone call was Alexander Graham Bell saying “Come here, Watson, I want you.” In 1877 Bell and his associates organized the Bell Telephone Company, which later became the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T). In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture. Edison later set up Menlo Park 

143 Westinghouse and Alternating currents
What two energy sources were used to power factories in the late 1800s?  Westinghouse and Alternating currents Who invented the light bulb and electric generators?  In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture. Edison later set up Menlo Park  In 1882 an Edison Company began to transform American society when it started supplying electric power to customers in New York City.

144 Edison’s voice Thomas Edison

145 1897 “http://www.tinfoil.com/sounds.

146 Radio: (AHSGE) Guglielmo Marconi invented his spark transmitter with antenna at his home in Bologna, Italy, in December 1894.

147 -- Early industry/role of labor in Alabama (Note: Alabama maps may be used)
What types of industry was Alabama involved in during the late 1800s?  Iron/steel: Alabama played a significant role in the development of the American iron and steel industry after the Civil War because of its natural and human resources. Birmingham was particularly important because of the natural resources of Jones Valley, in which it is located. (AHSGE)

148 Coal mining/Railroads: Alabama economics were changing with an emerging urban industrial society based on iron and coal, an emerging labor movement, especially among coal miners and the Knights of Labor, and powerful railroads, especially the L & N and its connection with coal and iron companies.

149 Textile (AHSGE):In Alabama, the total capital invested in 1890 was about $2.9 million, and a decade later the number had risen to $11.6 million. Most mills came to the South because of incentives such as abundant resources and cheap labor, and in addition, some southern cities and entrepreneurs saw industry as the best way to become more prosperous. The most important factor for growth, however, was cheap labor. Typically, in 1880, the wages in southern textile mills were 30 percent to 50 percent less than those in the North. Mills drew a labor force primarily from poor farmers who moved to escape the evils of sharecropping, tenantry, and the crop lien that had developed after the Civil War. The security of weekly pay, a life of lighter work, and better quarters lured farm families to the mill village. The "family wage" system continued the farm labor pattern where everyone worked to

150 help provide for the family
help provide for the family. The prevalence of the family wage system can be seen in the percentages of genders and age groups working in Alabama textiles in Of the employees, 38 percent were men, 33 percent were women, and 29 percent were children under sixteen. This new work force settled in numerous textile mills throughout the South. Exporting this textile was obviously important to Alabama. There was one cotton textile plant in Alabama, a huge plant, 25,000 spindles. The entire product of this Cordova, Alabama textile plant, the entire product went to China.

151 Timber (AHSGE): Very important to Alabama’s economy
Timber (AHSGE): Very important to Alabama’s economy.The production of saw timber in the South went from 1.6 billion board feet in 1880 to an estimated 15.4 billion board feet in 1920 (Williams, Pg. 238). New technology was immediately applied to southern sawmills; the use of steam engines and circular saws replaced the old waterwheel sawmills often working in unison with gristmills. Alabama like most of the South was seeking industry and was lobbing to make the southern forests available to the lumber industry moving out of the Lake States. Richard Nassey writes “ In the 1880’s all the ingredients for a prosperous business seemed to be at hand – abundant natural resources, cheap and plentiful labor, and a rising demand for the product” (Nassey, Pg 174). The South’s land ownership patterns were also favorable to the lumber industry. The South allowed for the purchase and consolidation of millions of acres into private

152 ownership (Williams). William explains how the South had allowed 925 people to own billion board feet of timber or half of the existing timber in the South, that is 925 individuals owned 46.6 million acres (Williams). These factors combined to make the South the next big timber production center. Early competition in the sawmilling industry kept prices down. Sawmills ranged from large to small “peckerwood” mills (Nassey). The investment in sawmills ranged from over one million dollars to a few thousand dollars, for the small portable sawmills (Nassey). Like in agriculture entry into the sawmilling industry was easy at this period in time, but the lack of education and money forced producers to sell their outputs immediately, regardless of price (Nassey). This like in agriculture forced an overproduction which, suppressed timber prices and kept competition and the rate of failure high

153 (Nassey). This was the era of the small lumbermen; numerous markets and an endless timber resource in an undeveloped region favored the small producer. The success of these small operations would later suffer from further advances in technology, and the development of the region and the transportation systems. The South reached its maximum timber production in 1920 at which time the Pacific Northwest became the leader (Williams).

154 Convict leasing (AHSGE): Convict leasing began in Alabama in 1846 and lasted until July 1, 1928, when Herbert Hoover was vying for the White House. In 1883, about 10 percent of Alabama's total revenue was derived from convict leasing. In 1898, nearly 73 percent of total revenue came from this same source. Death rates among leased convicts were approximately 10 times higher than the death rates of prisoners in non-lease states. In 1873, for example, 25 percent of all black leased convicts died. Possibly, the greatest impetus to the continued use of convict labor in Alabama was the attempt to depress the union movement.

155 Monopoly: occurs when one company gains control of an entire market (AHSGE). 
In the late 1800s, Americans became suspicious of large corporations and feared monopolies.  Many states made it illegal for a company to own stock in another company without permission from the state legislature. MERGER: The combining of two companies to make a larger company (AHSGE)

156 What were the captains of industry referred to during the late 1800s? 
Robber Barons: (AHSGE)A term for business leaders who the American people did not trust. Because of the change in industries, people began to describe the industrial leaders as either: Robber Barons OR Captains of Industry:(AHSGE;)Another name for business leaders who provided money for growth and also funded many philanthropic activities (as compared to “robber barons”

157 List two important captains of industry during this time period. 
Andrew Carnegie and J.D. Rockefeller

158 Andrew Carnegie:. founded a steel company in Pittsburgh (AHSGE)
He opened a steel company in 1875 and quickly adapted his steel mills to use the Bessemer process. In 1898, although Carnegie Steel’s output had risen threefold over the previous few years, the number of workers needed to produce the steel had decreased by 400. The use of electricity to drive automatic machinery was largely responsible for the decline in the workforce. Carnegie Library of Congress

159 Andrew “The first man gets the oyster, the
second man gets the shell.” see notes Oakland: How to Succeed in Life by Andrew Carnegie From The Pittsburg Bulletin, 19 December Reprinted from the New York Tribune. Everybody wants to preach to the young, and tell them to be good and they will be happy. I shall not enter far upon that field, but confine myself to presenting from a business man's standpoint of view, a few rules, which, I believe, lie at the root of business success. First--Never enter a bar-room. Do not drink liquor as a beverage. I will not paint the evil of drunkenness, or the moral crime; but I suggest to you that it is low and common to enter a bar-room, unworthy of any self-respecting man, and sure to fasten upon you a taint which will operate to your disadvantage in life, whether you ever become a drunkard or not. Second--I wish young men would not use tobacco--not that it is morally wrong, except in so far as it is used in excess and injures health, which the medical faculty declares it does. But the use of tobacco requires young men to withdraw themselves from the society of women to indulge the habit. I think the absence of women from any assembly tends to lower the tone of that assembly. The habit of smoking tends to carry young men into the society of men whom it is not desirable that they should choose as their intimate associates. The practice of chewing tobacco was once common. Now it is considered offensive. I believe the race is soon to take another step forward, and that the coming man is to consider smoking as offensive as chewing was formally considered. As it is practically abandoned now, so I believe smoking will be. Third--Having entered upon work, continue in that line of work. Fight it out on that line (except in extreme cases), for it matters little what avenue a young man finds first. Success can be attained in any branch of human labor. There is always room at the top in every pursuit. Concentrate all your thought and energy upon the performance of your duties. Put all your eggs into one basket and then watch that basket, do not scatter your shot. The man who is director in a half dozen railroads and three or four manufacturing companies, or who tries at one and the same time to work a farm, a factory, a line of street cars, a political party and a store, rarely amounts to much. He may be concerned in the management of more than one business enterprise, but they should all be of the one kind, which he understands. The great successes of life are made by concentration. Fourth--Do not think a man has done his full duty when he has performed the work assigned him. A man will never rise if he does only this. Promotion comes from exceptional work. A man must discover where his employer's interests can be served beyond the range of the special work allotted to him; and whenever he sees his employer's interests suffer, or wherever the latter's interests can be promoted, tell him so. Differ from your employers upon what you think his mistakes. You will never make much of a success if you do not learn the needs and opportunities of your own branch much better than your employer can possibly do. You have been told to "obey orders if you break owners." Do no such foolish thing. If your employer starts upon a course which you think will prove injurious, tell him so, protest, give your reasons, and stand to them unless convinced you are wrong. It is the young man who does this, that capital wants for a partner or for a son-in-law. Fifth--Whatever your wages are, save a little. Live within your means. The heads of stores, farms, banks, lawyers' offices, physicians' offices, insurance companies, mills and factories are not seeking capital; they are seeking brains and business habits. The man who saves a little from his income has given the surest indication of the qualities which every employer is seeking for. Sixth--Never speculate. Never buy or sell grain or stocks upon a margin. If you have savings, invest them in solid securities, lands or property. The man who gambles upon the exchanges is in the condition of the man who gambles at the gaming table. He rarely, if ever, makes a permanent success. His judgment goes; his faculties are snapped; and his end, as a rule, is nervous prostration after an unworthy and useless life. Seventh--If you ever enter business for yourself, never indorse for others. It is dishonest. All your resources and all your credit are the sacred property of the men who have trusted you; and until you have surplus cash and owe no man, it is dishonest to give your name as an indorser to others. Give the cash you can spare, if you wish, to help a friend. Your name is too sacred to give. Do not make riches, but usefulness, your first aim; and let your chief pride be that your daily occupation is in the line of progress and development; that your work, in whatever capacity it may be, is useful work, honestly conducted, and as such ennobling to your life. To sum up, do not drink, do not smoke, do not indorse, do not speculate. Concentrate, perform more than your prescribed duties; be strictly honest in word and deed. And may all who read these words be just as happy and prosperous and long lived as I wish them all to be. And let this great fact always cheer them: It is impossible for any one to be cheated out of an honorable career unless he cheats himself.

160 What idea was promoted by Andrew Carnegie that stated the wealthy should give back riches to the community?  “Gospel of Wealth:” (AHSGE) Carnegie's belief that the wealthy should give back some of their wealth for the betterment of humankind Before he started giving his money away, he was worth, in today’s dollars, $110 billion and the second richest man in history. Remember Bill Gates is worth $60 Billion and the 5th (behind John Jacob Astor) richest man in history FOR EXAMPLE: return to slide 414

161

162 John D. Rockefeller: formed the Standard Oil Company (AHSGE) using horizontal consolidation and trusts as a single unit. When he retired he was worth, in today’s dollars, $200 billion He was the richest man in history. See notes In 1911, the Supreme Court finds the Standard Oil in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act because of excessive restrictions to trade, and in particular its practice of buying out the small independent refiners or that of lowering the price in a given region to force bankruptcy of competitors. The court ordered the Standard Oil Company (New Jersey) to dismantle 33 of its most important affiliates, giving the stocks to its own shareholders and not to a new trust. Fromthese offspring will come Exxon, Mobil, Chevron, American, Esso.

163 The company almost immediately began using a variety of cutthroat techniques to acquire or destroy competitors and thereby "consolidate" the industry. They included: (1) Temporarily undercutting the prices of competitors until they either went out of business or sold out to Standard Oil. (2) Buying up the components needed to make oil barrels in order to prevent competitors from getting their oil to customers. (3) Using its large and growing volume of oil shipments to negotiate an alliance with the railroads that gave it secret rebates and thereby reduced its effective shipping costs to a level far below the rates charged to its competitors. (4) Secretly buying up competitors and then having officials from those companies spy on and give advance warning of deals being planned by other competitors.

164 (5) Secretly buying up or creating new oil-related companies, such as pipeline and engineering firms, that appeared be independent operators but which gave Standard Oil hidden rebates. (6) Dispatching thugs who used threats and physical violence to break up the operations of competitors who could not otherwise be persuaded So the federal government breaks it up or “trustbusting.”

165 Standard Oil of Ohio - or Sohio now part of BP
Standard Oil of Indiana - or Stanolind, renamed Amoco (American Oil Co.) - now part of BP Standard Oil of New York - or Socony and merged with Vacuum - renamed Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil Standard Oil of New Jersey - or Esso (S.O. or Eastern States Standard Oil) - renamed Exxon, now part of ExxonMobil. Standard Trust companies Carter Oil, Imperial Oil (Canada), and Standard of Louisiana were kept as part of S.O. of New Jersey after the breakup. Standard Oil of California - or Socal - renamed Chevron Standard's Atlantic and the independent company Richfield merged to form Atlantic Richfield or Arco, now part of BP. Atlantic operations were spun off and bought by Sunoco. Standard Oil of Kentucky - or Kyso was acquired by Standard Oil of California - currently Chevron Continental Oil Company - or Conoco now part of ConocoPhillips The Ohio Oil Company - more commonly referred to as "The Ohio", and marketed gasoline under the Marathon name. Company is now known as Marathon Oil Company, and was often a rival with in-state Standard spinoff Sohio

166 --Ideologies of business
What theory was used to promote competition in the marketplace?  Social Darwinism (AHSGE): Charles Darwin had argued that plant and animal life evolved over the years by the process of natural selection. In this process, those species that cannot adapt to the environment in which they live gradually die out, while those that adapt best thrive. Social Darwinists took this theory of biology, intended to explain developments over millions of years, and applied it to human society, arguing that human society also evolved through competition and natural selection. They argued that society progressed and became better because only the fittest people survived

167 Gospel of Wealth (AHSGE): see slide 406
What novelist wrote many fictional stories promoting the "rags to riches" theme?  Horatio Alger (AHSGE): wrote “rags-to-riches” novels

168 Urbanization in the late 1800s: (AHSGE) (Note: photos, political cartoons, and graphs may be used)
City services had a difficult time keeping up with the tremendous population growth. Cities in the late 1800s and early 1900s often lacked central planning. There were few sewer systems or clean water. Many roads were not yet paved. There were few building codes in place to protect the people living in them, and fire and police services were limited. Cities were rife with political corruption and disease. These problems would lead to calls for reform by Progressives.

169

170 Farm to factories: (AHSGE) millions of Americans left farms that were unprofitable or farm machines had replaced them as workers; they then moved to cities and worked in factories. Child labor (AHSGE): was used in factories because of their small size and cheap wages; parents often allowed children to work long work days for the extra income. SEE NOTES Child Labor: (AHSGE) had been abolished in many states during the progressive age with the help of labor reformers Children’s Bureau (AHSGE): investigated and publicized problems with child labor By 1810, about 2,000,000 school-age children were working 50- to 70-hour weeks. Most of them came from poor families. When parents could not support their children, they sometimes turned them over to a mill or factory owner. One glass factory in Massachusetts was fenced with barbed wire "to keep the young imps inside." The "young imps" were boys under 12 who carried loads of hot glass all night for a wage of 40 cents to $1.10 per night By 1899 a total of 28 states had passed laws regulating child labor. Many efforts were made to pass a national child labor law. The U.S. Congress passed two laws, in 1918 and 1922, but the Supreme Court declared both unconstitutional. In 1924, Congress proposed a constitutional amendment prohibiting child labor, but the states did not ratify it. Then, in 1938, Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act. It fixed minimum ages of 16 for work during school hours, 14 for certain jobs after school, and 18 for dangerous work.

171 John Spargo’s The Bitter Cry of the Children “Work in the coal breakers is exceedingly hard and dangerous. Crouched over the chutes, the boys sit hour after hour, picking out the pieces of slate and other refuse from the coal as it rushes past to the washers. From the cramped position they have to assume, most of them become more or less deformed and bent-backed like old men…. for ten hours at a stretch, for sixty cents a day.

172 Immigrant labor: (AHSGE) with their large numbers, helped make sure there was not shortage of labor in the U.S., forcing many workers to take it or leave it. Immigration restrictions (AHSGE) In the late 1800s, as the number of immigrant continued to increase, there were more calls for immigrant restrictions, including the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s Agreement (with Japan). Labor unions (AHSGE): often opposed immigration, arguing that most immigrants would work for low wages

173 What types of labor problems did early unions try and correct? 
Unsafe working conditions, low wages, shorter working hours (AHSGE) Labor unions: (AHSGE) because of growing discontent among workers, many workers chose for change by coming together and negotiating as one group. Labor strikes: (AHSGE) the main weapon unions would use to get their demands.

174 • Identify, explain, and relate the accomplishments and limitations of
the Progressive Movement. What was the movement called which promoted change in government, business, and social welfare?  Progressivism: (AHSGE) the collective social and political reform ideas in the late 1800s and early 1900s including protecting workers, welfare programs. Progressives: (AHSGE) focused on government reform, business regulations, and social reforms; had a strong faith in science and expertise

175 --Characteristics --Social Role of women (AHSGE): With the growing demand for equality and the right to vote, plus the changing role of women due to the industrial revolution and growing middle class, society began to reexamine the role of women in U.S. society.

176 What did Theodore Roosevelt call journalists who were intent on exposing corruption at the turn of the century? Muckraker: (AHSGE) writers who exposed corruption and scandal. Their focus was on large corporations, government, and social problems. Examples include the following people and issues:

177 Jacob Riis, How The Other Half Lives
photographs and stories about the wretched conditions in the city slums.

178 every stage. The assessor's list is the voting
Lincoln Steffens’ The Shame of the Cities (1904) “The machine controls the whole process of voting, and practices fraud at every stage. The assessor's list is the voting list, and the assessor is the machine's man The assessor pads the list with the names of dead dogs, children, and non-existent persons. Lincoln Steffens

179 What journalist wrote an expose on Standard Oil?
IDA TARBELL (AHSGE): revealed the abuses committed by the Standard Oil trust. “ Every great campaign against rival interests which the Standard Oil Company has carried on has been … to build up and sustain a monopoly in the oil industry.” History of the Standard Oil Company 1904

180 What novel was highly acclaimed for exposing problems in the meatpacking industry? 
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (AHSGE): described his observations of Chicago slaughterhouses; led to the Meat Inspection Act

181 “There were the men in the picklerooms for
instance… scarce a one to these that had not some spot of horror on his person. Let a man so much as scrape his finger pushing a truck in the pickerooms and he might have a sore that would put him out of the world; all the joints in his fingers might be eaten by the acid, one by one. Of the butchers and floorsmen, the beef-boners and trimmers, and all those who used knives, you could scarcely find a person who had the use of his thumb; time and time again the base of it had been slashed, till it was a mere lump of flesh against which the man pressed the knife to hold it. The hands of these men would be crisscrossed

182 with cuts, until you could no longer pretend to count them or to trace them. They would have no nails, - they had worn them off pulling hides; their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers spread out like a fan.” There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white – it would be dosed with borax and glycerine, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the

183 workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions
of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no

184 joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and
the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when he saw one – there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a tidbit. Under the system of rigid economy which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water – and cartload after cartload of it would be taken

185 up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat,
and sent out to the public's breakfast. Some of it they would make into "smoked" sausage but as the smoking took time, and was therefore expensive, they would call upon their chemistry department, and preserve it with borax and color it with gelatine to make it brown. All of their sausage came out of the same bowl, but when they came to wrap it they would stamp some of it "special," and for this they would charge two cents more a pound.

186 Public education: (AHSGE) the demand for skilled (educated) workers led to a greater demand on building schools and colleges in the late 1800s. Horace Mann: (AHSGE) sometimes called the father of American public school education Campaigned for Education in Mass. Established Schools For Teacher Training. Established School District Libraries Won Financial Backing for Public Education. Extended His Influence Beyond Massachusetts.

187 BOOKER T. WASHINGTON: founder of Tuskegee Institute (AHSGE) argued African Americans should focus
on economic equality through vocational work, rather than political equality. "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed.

188 Tuskegee Institute (AHSGE): In 1881, the legislature approved the establishing of the Tuskegee State Normal School to educate teachers. A young Virginia educator, Booker T. Washington, who came as principal to Tuskegee from Hampton Institute was recruited. Washington opened the school on July 4, SEE NOTES What African American man was famous for his work as an agricultural scientist?  George Washington Carver (AHSGE):Headed Tuskegee's Department of Agriculture, and it was here that Carver conducted his research and experiments on typical Southern plants, especially peanuts and sweet potatoes Before the Civil War, Macon County, Alabama, was a flourishing community based upon cotton agriculture. The county seat of Tuskegee was a cultural and educational center with several schools. In the Reconstruction period, Lewis Adams, a leader in the black community, was approached by two white politicians who asked his help in securing the black vote for them in the next election. Adams agreed but only if the two would support establishing a college for African Americans in Tuskegee. The deal was struck, and the two men were elected to the legislature. George W. Campbell, a former slave owner, worked closely with Adams to bring the college to Tuskegee. In 1881, the legislature approved an act establishing the Tuskegee State Normal School to educate teachers. Adams and two other men were appointed commissioners, and with Campbell's help they recruited a young Virginia educator, Booker T. Washington, who came as principal to Tuskegee from Hampton Institute. Washington opened the school on July 4, Through the years the other schools once located in Tuskegee closed or moved to other localities, but the educational institution that became Tuskegee University continues to be a center of learning and service for east Alabama as well as the state of Alabama, the South, and the world.

189 Who was the African American who encouraged blacks to learn a trade and also founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881?  Booker T. Washington, an African American educator, urged fellow African Americans to concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal or political ones (AHSGE). This idea was also called Atlanta Exposition/Compromise: (AHSGE) African Americans should pursue economic goals before political goals

190 Who was the African-American who encouraged blacks to seek social justice and equality and was an early leader of the NAACP? W.E.B. DuBois (AHSGE): was particularly concerned with protecting and exercising voting rights for African Americans Washington’s Atlanta Compromise was challenged by W.E.B. Du Bois, the leader of African American activists born after the Civil War. 

191 What was the movement that DuBois lead?
Du Bois said that white Southerners continued to take away the civil rights of African Americans, even though they were making progress in education and vocational training.  He believed that African Americans had to demand their rights, especially voting rights, to gain full equality.   What was the movement that DuBois lead?  Niagara Movement: (AHSGE) Rejected Washington’s Atlanta Compromise and formed the NAACP. NAACP: a legal organization, would be formed, in part, to convince Congress to pass anti-lynching legislation (AHSGE)

192 NAACP: greatest political triumphs occurred in 1930 with the defeat of a racist judge nominated for the Supreme Court (AHSGE). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) battled against segregation and discrimination.  The NAACP’s efforts led to the passage of anti-lynching legislation in the House of Representatives, but the Senate defeated the bill. SEE NOTES While many people assume that the song "Strange Fruit" was written by Holiday herself, it actually began as a poem by Abel Meeropol, a Jewish schoolteacher and union activist from the Bronx who later set it to music. Disturbed by a photograph of a lynching, the teacher wrote the stark verse and brooding melody under the pseudonym Lewis Allan in the late 1930s. Meeropol and his wife Anne are also notable because they adopted Robert and Michael Rosenberg, the orphaned children of the executed communists Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Holiday later said "The first time I sang it, I thought it was a mistake. There wasn't even a patter of applause when I finished. Then a lone person began to clap nervously. Then suddenly everyone was clapping." "Strange Fruit" was first performed at a New York teachers' union meeting and was brought to the attention of the manager of Cafe Society, a popular Greenwich Village nightclub, who introduced Billie Holiday to the writer. Holiday's record label refused to record the song but Holiday persisted and recorded it on a specialty label instead. The song was quickly adopted as the anthem for the anti-lynching movement. The haunting lyrics and melody made it impossible for white Americans and politicians to continue to ignore the Southern campaign of racist terror. (According to the Center for Constitutional Rights, between 1882 and1968, mobs lynched 4,743 persons in the United States, over 70 percent of them African Americans.)

193 What famous Supreme Court decision upheld segregation in 1896?
Plessy v. Ferguson (AHSGE): Supreme Court ruling which endorsed “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans. This ruling established the legal basis for discrimination in the South for over 50 years. Homer Plessy: African American arrested for riding in a “whites-only” railroad car

194 Therefore, across the country, especially the South . . . .
OTHER EXAMPLES

195 The schools for white children and the schools for negro children shall be
conducted separately. (Florida) Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them. (North Carolina) The officer in charge shall not bury, or allow to be buried, any colored persons upon ground set apart or used for the burial of white persons. (Georgia) The white and colored militia shall be separately enrolled, and shall never be compelled to serve in the same organization.(North Carolina) The conductors or managers on all such railroad shall have power, and are hereby required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race. (Virginia)

196 Alabama Constitution of 1901(AHSGE) which was drawn up to continue to keep taxes low and governmental services minimal. It guaranteed that the propertied classes stayed in power the vote was taken away from many poor whites and African Americans. It was ratified in one of the most corrupt elections in Alabama history. Today, having been amended more than 650 times (as of1999), it is one of the longest constitutions in the western world.

197 --Progressive Constitutional Amendments
What amendment to the Constitution introduced an income tax?  16th Amendment (AHSGE): Allowed for income tax. What amendment made the election of senators by popular vote?  17th Amendment (AHSGE): Allowed for the direct election, by the people, of the U.S. Senate. 19th Amendment: Gave women the right to vote (AHSGE) 

198 What amendment introduced prohibition as a national law?
It was one of the Progressive Amendments! Eighteenth Amendment: prohibited alcohol (AHSGE) Many felt prohibition would reduce unemployment, domestic violence, and poverty.  The Volstead Act purpose was to enforce prohibition and made the enforcement of Prohibition the responsibility of the U.S. Treasury Department. 

199

200 --Progressive leadership of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson
What president introduced important conservation methods to preserve millions of acres of western lands?  Theodore Roosevelt (AHSGE): warned William Howard Taft to stay away from tariff reform because it would split the Republican Party. Later, Theodore Roosevelt tried to win the Republican nomination from William Howard Taft in the 1912 election because he believed that Taft had failed to live up to progressive ideals.

201 Conservation movement: As Americans realized that the countries resources were limited, a movement began to conserve lands, animals, and other natural resources (AHSGE) President Theodore Roosevelt urged Americans to conserve natural resources.  In 1902 Roosevelt supported the passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which authorized the use of federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects. 

202 Visits Yellowstone National Park with John Burroughs 1902
National Park with John Muir 1902

203

204 Roosevelt appointed Gifford Pinchot to head the United States Forest Service to carefully manage the timber resources in the West. Pinchot and his department created regulations controlling lumbering on federal lands.  Roosevelt’s actions during his presidency caused Americans to increasingly look to the federal government to solve the nation’s economic and social problems.  The executive branch of government greatly increased in power.

205

206 Labor reform (AHSGE): Although most labor reforms focused on child labor, other reforms included limiting women’s working hours and the establishment the Departments of Labor and Commerce to the Cabinet.

207 How did Taft's foreign diplomacy differ from Roosevelt's? 
Dollar Diplomacy

208 What three parties entered a candidate for president in 1912? Who won?
Election of 1912 (AHSGE): Split of the Republican party between Taft and Roosevelt leads to a Wilson (Democrat) victory. Presidential Election Results: 1908 William H. Taft ,676, William J. Bryan ,412, 1912 Woodrow Wilson 6,296, Theodore Roosevelt 4,118, William H. Taft ,486, 1912 election

209 Woodrow Wilson (AHSGE):
Woodrow Wilson (AHSGE): as governor of New Jersey, he introduced many progressive reforms which he would continue as President.

210 What act was passed during Wilson's tenure that was intended to break up monopolies? 
CLAYTON ANTITRUST ACT (AHSGE): strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act and favored unions by exempting them from anti-trust laws. It put a ban on tying agreements and price discrimination

211 What commission was set up by Wilson to monitor the practices of businesses? 
Federal Trade Commission (AHSGE): investigated companies and issued “cease and desist” orders against companies involved in unfair trade practices. 

212 How did Wilson change the banking system in the United States in 1913?
Federal Reserve: government agency that today helps regulate the economy (AHSGE) Originally, it was designed to restore faith in the banking by requiring banks to keep some of their deposits in a reserve to protect customers’ money. There had not been a central bank since the 1830s, when economic depressions had caused small banks to close, wiping out customers’ savings. 

213

214 The information herein this slide show is from a collection of sources including, but not limited to, Enduring Vision, third ed., Charles Boyer (especially material from US HY I, tenth grade); America: Pathways to the Present 2000 edition, Andrew Cayton; American Vision Volume 2, 2005 edition, Joyce Appleby, including American Vision PowerPoints. Particular web-sites used are listed in the notes section. The questions are courtesy of Montevallo High School.


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