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Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft The Fate of Antimatter January 17, 2013 | Hans Ströher JARA|FAME Inauguration.

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Presentation on theme: "Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft The Fate of Antimatter January 17, 2013 | Hans Ströher JARA|FAME Inauguration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mitglied der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft The Fate of Antimatter January 17, 2013 | Hans Ströher JARA|FAME Inauguration

2 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 2 Matter and Antimatter Annihilation

3 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 3 Matter and Antimatter No antimatter (!?) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Time after Big Bang Now No indications for massive annihilation radiation

4 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 4 Paul A.M. Dirac

5 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 5 Inventor of Antimatter Paul A.M. Dirac -+-+

6 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 6 …, we must regard it rather as an accident that the Earth (and presumably the whole solar system), contains a preponderance of negative electrons and positive protons. Matter Paul A.M. Dirac

7 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 7 It is quite possible that for some of the stars it is the other way about, these stars being built up mainly of positrons and negative protons. Anti-Matter Paul A.M. Dirac

8 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 8 Search for Anti-matter From: NASA.gov

9 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 9 If we accept the view of complete symmetry between positive and negative electric charge as far as concerns the fundamental laws of Nature,... (A)Symmetry ? Paul A.M. Dirac

10 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 10 Search for an Asymmetry Symmetric Big Bang

11 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 11 Search for an Asymmetry Asymmetric Universe BAU

12 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 12 Where is the anti- matter ? Search for it ! It´s gone – why ? AMS EDM Quantitative theoretical connection

13 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 13 Where is the anti- matter ? Search for it ! It´s gone – why ? AMS EDM Detectors Electronics Data Handling

14 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 14 Symmetrical objects – Snowflakes – Symmetry

15 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 15 Why Symmetry Matters Fundamental symmetry principles … - dictate the basic laws of physics, - control the structure of matter, and - define the fundamental forces in Nature. (Leon Lederman) Discrete symmetries Theorem Mirror Reflection + Inversion Symmetries (except CPT) are not perfect

16 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 16 Fundamental symmetry principles … - dictate the basic laws of physics, - control the structure of matter, and - define the fundamental forces in Nature. (Leon Lederman) Why Symmetry Matters The fundamental theories of physics are based on symmetry considerations, yet: our world is filled with asymmetry. (Tsung-Dao Lee) Different behaviour KLKL + e-e- e KLKL - e+e+ e CP-mirror ParticlesAnti-particles One decay happens more frequently CP-symmetry is broken

17 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 17 New CPV ? - EDM New CPV ? - EDM Why Symmetry Matters Standard Model CP violation too small ! MatterAnti-Matter

18 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 18 EDM violates T (CP) Electric Dipole Moment Spin Round: No EDM SpinEDM T Different states SpinEDM

19 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie ´s: EDMs small Electric Dipole Moment 1 fm + <10 m - Neutron fm

20 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 20 Electric Dipole Moment Adapted from: Nature, Vol 482 (2012) No EDM yet, only limits 10m EDMs must exist Neutron

21 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 21 EDM: precision frontier Electric Dipole Moment 1 fm fm + <10 µm -

22 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 22 µ d Precession frequency How EDMs are Measured B EB E hf + = 2µB + 2dE hf - = 2µB - 2dE

23 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 23 Polarization vector How EDMs are Measured Freeze horizontal spin of polarized charged particle beam in storage ring along the momentum, … Spin Momentum

24 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 24 Polarization vector How EDMs are Measured Freeze horizontal spin of polarized charged particle beam in storage ring along the momentum, …

25 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 25 Polarization vector How EDMs are Measured … apply a radial electric field (E) … … and watch for development of vertical polarization EDM Goal: e cm nm separation

26 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 26 COSY: from tests … Storage Ring EDM Project

27 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 27 COSY: precursor expt. Storage Ring EDM Project

28 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 28 … to a precision SR Storage Ring EDM Project Options: All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3 He): E- and B-fields Requirements: Clockwise and counterclockwise beams

29 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 29 … to a precision SR Storage Ring EDM Project Options: All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3 He): E- and B-fields Challenges: Huge E-fields Shielding B-fields Spin coherence Beam position Polarimetry (...)

30 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 30 Storage Ring EDM Project Options: All-electric ring (proton, electron): only E-field All-in-one ring (proton, deuteron, 3 He): E- and B-fields JEDI-Collaboration JEDI Jülich Electric Dipole Moment Investigations

31 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 31 JEDI: staged approach Storage Ring EDM Project EDM Sensitivity Time R&D, test measurements at COSY Precursor expt. w/ COSY Dedicated SR Now e cm e cm First direct measurements for p, d First direct measurements for p, d

32 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 32 Highest sensitivity Storage Ring EDM Project pEDM dEDM Possibility of a discovery

33 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 33 Fate of antimatter JARA|FAME CPV Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings Unprecedented sensitivity (< e cm) Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe Physics beyond the Standard Model Exceptional technological challenge T EDM

34 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 34 A must-do A must-do and can-do ! JARA|FAME CPV Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings Unprecedented sensitivity (< e cm) Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe Physics beyond the Standard Model Exceptional technological challenge T EDM

35 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 35 A must-do and can-do ! JARA|FAME Search for charged-particle EDMs in storage rings Unprecedented sensitivity (< e cm) Reason for baryon-asymmetric Universe Physics beyond the Standard Model Exceptional technological challenge CPV T EDM

36 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 36

37 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 37 SPARES

38 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 38 CMB Radiation PLANCK (ESA, 2009) The main feature of this image is our own Galaxy, as a white line across the middle. Planck's main objective is to map the CMB ratiation, which was emitted in the early Universe. This can be seen in regions where the Galaxyis not emitting strongly, as red and yellow mottled appearance at the top and bottom of the image. The CMB is actually present over the whole sky, but is swamped by the light from our own Galaxy.

39 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 39 Search for Anti-matter INTEGRAL mapped the glow of 511 keV gamma rays from electron-positron annihilation. The map shows the whole sky, with the galactic center in the middle. The emission extends to the right. This INTEGRAL image shows the distribution of hard low-mass X-ray binaries. This stellar population has a distribution that matches the extent of the 511 keV map.

40 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 40 Search for Anti-matter FERMI Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST): -ray pulsars Cycle of pulsed gamma rays from the Vela pulsar

41 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 41 Baryon Asymmetric Universe From: NASA.gov The predicted abundance of deuterium, helium and lithium depends on the density of ordinary matter in the early Universe. The WMAP satellite is able to directly measure the ordinary matter density: i.e., or every baryon, there are 2 x 10 9 photons …, but we see no antibaryons: Time since Big Bang (yr)

42 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 42 Baryogenesis From: NASA.gov Three conditions (Sakharov): Baryon number violation B = 0 B = 0 C- and CP-violation every asymmetry will be compensated Non-thermal equilibrium no change in equilibrium Can be formally proven by quantum mechanics and statistical physics. SM baryogenesis extremely unlikely (smallness of CPV, current Higgs-mass)

43 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 43 Production of Anti-matter 1995: First observation of anti-hydrogen (9 atoms) W. Oelert et al.

44 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 44 Production of Anti-matter

45 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 45 Symmetry

46 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 46 Discrete Symmetries

47 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 47 Symmetry Breaking

48 22. Januar 2014 Institut für Kernphysik (IKP) Folie 48 Symmetry Breaking


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