Presentation on theme: "Writing for Social Studies Writing is thinking. When students write in Social Studies they must think critically about the events and issues they are studying."— Presentation transcript:
Writing for Social Studies Writing is thinking. When students write in Social Studies they must think critically about the events and issues they are studying. Four basic types of writing are frequently used in Social Studies: reporting, exposition, narration, and argumentation. Students can report the basic facts about an event or person. They can explain an idea or compare and contrast events. Students can narrate an event from the point of view of a participant, or argue and defend or refute an idea or belief. All of these types of writing demand that students think critically about the content they are exploring. This is true whether the student is writing one sentence, one paragraph, or a whole essay. All writing, no matter what the purpose, has four basic parts: introduction, basic facts, explanation, conclusion
THE QUESTION Before you can write, you need to understand the task. Identify the “critical thinking” direction I dentify the TOPIC Describe Explain Compare/Contrast Evaluate Analyze AND OTHERS I dentify ADDITIONAL FOCUS (usually a prepositional phrase) LL ocation TT ime period RR estrictions GG roups/Peoples QQ uantities AA ND OTHERS
INTRODUCTION The INTRODUCTION simply introduces the TOPIC. Make the TOPIC known. Very simply, restate the question without the “critical thinking” direction. Do so in a complete sentence. Do not begin new information in the same sentence. If this is a longer writing, it is acceptable to continue with a brief summary to “set the stage” for the reader to know the content of the essay. NEVER NEVER NEVER list a preview statement. This is now considered “poor writing.” TRY following the introduction with a CLAIM: an argument or opinion about the topic you will prove as you continue. Depending on you “critical thinking” direction, a claim may be required.
Describe how religion influenced the lives of the ancient peoples of India Choose one of the three major Chinese dynasties and describe its successes and failure. Choose two leaders discussed in this chapter. Compare and contrast their successes, failures, and impact on history. Choose two philosophers discussed in this chapter. Compare and contrast their beliefs. LET US PRACTICE Decide the city-state that made the best place to live in Ancient Greece. Defend this decision. “ ______________________ was a better place to live in Ancient Greece.”
BASIC FACTS BASIC FACTS need to be listed, evaluated, and sorted. This is where “prewriting” is necessary. Brainstorm what you can Use previous notes Research additional information Sort them in a way appropriate for the QUESTION Toss any facts that do not fit the format LISTING, EVALUATING, AND SORTING BASIC FACTS DOES NOT STOP UNTIL THE WRITING IS COMPLETE – you may need to toss weak facts or find new ones to fill holes or answer new questions
EXPLAINATION FACTS need to be EXPLAINED. How does this FACT connect to the TOPIC? How do the FACTS connect to other FACTS? Create a sequence – either chronological or more of a “summersault effect” linking one to another Refer back to the “critical thinking” direction – EXPLAIN the FACT through description, explanation, evaluation, assessment, judgment… It may be helpful to repeat the TOPIC and/or ADDITONAL FOCUS occasionally to stay on task Inserting EXPLAINATION breaks up the facts to prevent unacceptable lists. List can only be allowed if the facts grouped together share the same explanation
CONCLUSION The CONCLUSION neatly ends the writing by wrapping up all lose ends. One of the simplest ways to think about this is, “if I could answer the question in one sentence, how could this be done?” It is NOT the same as restating the INTRODUCTION, but it does repeat the TOPIC and possible ADDITIONAL FOCUS. NEVER NEVER NEVER list a preview statement. This is now considered “poor writing.” IF YOU MADE A CLAIM: restate the claim AS A FACT.
BASIC RULES 1. Do not assume 2. No contractions 3. Capitalize correctly 4. ALWAYS 3 rd person 5. ALWAYS 3 rd person 6. ALWAYS 3 rd person 7. past tense 8. There. It is lazy to start a sentence. 9. Never assume anything 10. Use synonyms 11. Use facts 12. -- 13. Do not assume 14. Write full name of acronyms 15. No “text speak” 16. Do not abbreviate 17. --- 18. refer to people by LAST name (after you call them by FIRST and LAST) 19. Do not assume
YOUR TURN! Decide the city-state that made the best place to live in Ancient Greece. Defend this decision. This is FORMAL WRITING. Follow the Basic Rules 1.Write the introduction sentence as given to you (already done) – place the period as it is given – stop the sentence, do not continue it! 2.Write your first reason BUT DO NOT SAY “the first reason is” – make a bold statement by writing “This is because Athens…” or “This is because Sparta…” then STOP YOUR SENTENCE. 3.What is your evidence? State it. 4.How does this evidence MAKE THIS CITY-STATE THE BEST PLACE TO LIVE IN ANCIENT GREECE? – make it clear