Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A Comparison of Legal Visualization and Technical Visualization Vytautas ČYRAS Vilnius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "A Comparison of Legal Visualization and Technical Visualization Vytautas ČYRAS Vilnius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Comparison of Legal Visualization and Technical Visualization Vytautas ČYRAS Vilnius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania

2 1. Limiting a class of pictures 2

3 Limiting the scope of analysis 2 domains –law –technical domain (technology) A classification of pictures in law; see Röhl & Ulbrich (2007) –iconic pictures –logical pictures (logische Bilder) –other pictures 3

4 A comparison framework A framework for knowledge visualization [Eppler and Burkhard 2006]; see also [Zachman 1987] 1.Knowledge type (What? What type of knowledge is visualized (object)?) Legal knowledge 2. Visualization goal (Why? Why should that knowledge be visualized (purpose)?) Accomplishing functions and tasks in the 2 domains – law and technology 3. Visualization format (How? How can the knowledge be represented (method)?) Logical pictures – conceptual diagrams 4

5 The three different perspectives [Eppler and Burkhard 2006] Knowledge type (what?) Know-what? Know-how? Know-why? Know-where? Know-who? Visualization goal (why?) Transferring (clarification, elicitation, socialization) Creating (discovery, combination) Learning (acquisition, internationalization) Finding (e.g., experts, documents, groups) Assessing (evaluation, rating) 5 Visualization format (how?) Heuristic sketches Conceptual diag- rams (purpose – to structure information and illustrate relationships) Visual metaphors Knowledge animations Knowledge maps Domain structures

6 Limiting the technical domain 1.Technical drawings Electrical diagrams, piping, ventilation, etc. 2.Air traffic management Airport arrival and departure charts 3.Information systems (IS) requirements engineering (RE). UML diagrams 4.Virtual worlds, e.g. Second Life, World of Warcraft Drawing is law L egal subjects: manufacturers, sellers, maintenance, etc. 6

7 The spirit of domain Visualizations preserving the spirit –of the legal domain –of the technical domain 7

8 PropertyLegal visualizationTechnical visualization Knowledge type (what?)Legal knowledgeRequirements Visualization goal (why?) Legal tasksContracts Format (how?)Logical picturesConceptual diagrams Abstractness of normsYesNo Freedom of interpretation BigLittle Open texture problemYesNo DecisionYes, no, intermediateYes, no Purpose of decisionSolve a disputeAnswer yes/no Interpreters of legal knowledge Jurists – have legal education Engineers – do not have legal education SynthesisNo.Yes. Software is generated automatically

9 2. Examples of visualizations in law 9

10 Legal argumentation 10 Dialogue default sequence for argumentation scheme; see D.Walton (2003)

11 Legal reasoning 11 Value-based Argumentation Framework (VAF) showing arguments, objections and rebuttals; see Bex et al. (2009)

12 The spirit of mathematics outweighs the spirit of law 12 A mathematical structure – partial order – in legal argument. A theory for 3 cases – Pierson v. Post, Keeble v. Hickeringill and Young v. Hitchens; see Bench-Capon (2002)

13 The structure of norm Telos (goal) See also F. Lachmayer (1977) Grundzüge einer Normentheorie 13 Norm (1) Condition (2.4) Object (3) Telos (2.1) Subject (2.3) Action (2.3) Modus

14 A B te positiv N ( A) (1) sets the relation A te B (2) evaluates: both the action A and the goal B (3) sets the norm N(A) The spirit of the law is preserved (1) (2) (3) STM(A te B) STM (Wert) A graphical notation has no strict syntax and semantics. Though it visualizes strict statements:

15 3. Examples of pictures in technical domains 15

16 Electrical connections diagram 16 Recht in Bilder (Law in Diagram) Technical rules in computer, in Computer-Aided Design system Diagram is law Legally binding agreement

17 A landing procedure for an aircraft 17 Strict semantics of the rules. Subject – the pilot. An observer at the airport detects violations of the rules. Diagram is law

18 Graphical notation for legal requirements 18 SI* graphical notation; see L.Compagna et al. How to integrate legal requirements into a requirements engineering methodology for the development of security and privacy patterns (2009)

19 Normative positions in software requirements 19 Entitlements, permissions, etc., in SI* model of the health care scenario [Compagna et al. 2009]

20 Virtual worlds Serious, e.g. Second Life, Active Worlds Educational Universe Not games e.g. World of Warcraft I am neither a proponent nor opponent of them. 20 Consider negative factors such as addiction Research & software development project FP7 ICT VirtualLife project, 3 years from Title Secure, Trusted and Legally Ruled Collaboration Environment in Virtual Life. Acronym VirtualLife Goal: software platform – peer-to-peer architecture Learning support as a use scenario, e.g. University Virtual Campus

21 Sample scenarios Web 2.0 –information as a content –asynchronous communication University Virtual Campus –interaction as a content –synchronous communication 21

22 From legal rules – to virtual world rules – to rules in software 22 This translation complies with: –Lawrence Lessigs conception Code is law –Raph Kosters Declaration of the Rights of Avatars Keep off the grass The subject – avatar – is forbidden the action – walking on the grass A software program, i.e. a script. Implemented by trigers which control the avatar Natural intelligence – a team of (1) a legal expert, and (2) virtual world developer Natural intelligence – a programmer Translation

23 Examples of rules 1.An avatar is forbidden to touch objects not owned by him or a certain group. 2.An avatar not belonging to a given group is forbidden to a given area of the zone. 3.An avatar is forbidden to create more than a given number of objects during a given time interval. 4.An avatar is forbidden to use a given dictionary of words (slang) while chatting with other avatars. 5.An avatar of age is forbidden to chat with avatars under age. 6.An avatar is forbidden to execute authorized scripts in a certain area. 23

24 4. A comparison 24

25 PropertyLegal visualizationTechnical visualization Knowledge type (what?)Legal knowledge. Sources: doctrine, statutes, case law, etc. Requirements engineering Visualization goal (why?)Legal tasksLegally binding relationships Format (how?)Logical picturesConceptual diagrams Abstractness of normsYesNo Freedom of interpretationBig (in certain extent). Grammatical interpretation, teleological, etc. Little Open texture problemYes. Introduced intentio- nally. Variety of situations No. Verification, validation, testing DecisionYes/no/intermediateYes/no Purpose of decisionSolve a dispute. Criterion: justice Answer yes/no Interpretation of legal knowledge is different Jurists – have legal education Engineers – do not have legal education FormalismNot wantedWanted – for automation SynthesisNo. Yes, for simple cases Yes. Software can be generated from diagrams

26 The goals of the comparison Modeling Formalization Theory development Symbolization Reflection Knowledge representation Creating diagrams Sociological aspects: I am not an expert 26

27 A need for a detailed diagram 27 Europ a-recht Grund- gesetz Gesetze Tarifverträge Betriebsvereinbarungen Arbeitsvertrag Weisungsrecht des Arbeitgebers Quelle: von Hoyningen-Huene, Betriebliches Arbeitsrecht, 1977 In Abbildung ist diese Hierarchievorstellung auch in der Sache anfechtbar. Es gibt naemlich keine klare Hierarchie zwischen dem Europarecht und dem nationalen Verfassungsrecht, denn noch immer leitet das Europarecht seine Geltung in Deutschland aus Art.23 GG ab. [Röhl & Ulbrich 2007, p ] Rechtsquellenpyramide des Arbeitsrechts The principle of the primacy of EC law requires detailed hierarchical diagrams. The concepts: direct applicability (unmittelbare Geltung), direct effect (unmittelbare Anwendbarkeit) (Van Gend & Loos, Costa) duty to set aside conflicting national rules horizontal direct effect (Defrenne), no horizontal effect for directives (Marshall), state liability (Francovich), etc.

28 Thank you

Download ppt "A Comparison of Legal Visualization and Technical Visualization Vytautas ČYRAS Vilnius University, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Vilnius, Lithuania."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google