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Chapter 9 Sources of Government Revenue 1. Key Terms 2  sin tax  incidence of a tax  tax loophole  individual income tax  sales tax  benefit principle.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Sources of Government Revenue 1. Key Terms 2  sin tax  incidence of a tax  tax loophole  individual income tax  sales tax  benefit principle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Sources of Government Revenue 1

2 Key Terms 2  sin tax  incidence of a tax  tax loophole  individual income tax  sales tax  benefit principle of taxation  ability-to-pay principle of taxation  proportional tax  average tax rate  progressive tax  marginal tax rate  regressive tax  payroll withholding system  Internal Revenue Service (IRS)  tax return  indexing  FICA  medicare  payroll tax  corporate income tax  excise tax  luxury good  estate tax  gift tax  customs duty  user fee  intergovernmental revenue  property tax  tax assessor  payroll withholding statement  accelerated depreciation  investment tax credit  surcharge  alternative minimum tax  capital gains  value-added tax (VAT)  flat tax

3 CHAPTER INTRODUCTION  SECTION 1The Economics of Taxation SECTION 1The Economics of Taxation  SECTION 2The Federal Tax System SECTION 2The Federal Tax System  SECTION 3State and Local Tax Systems SECTION 3State and Local Tax Systems  SECTION 4Current Tax Issues SECTION 4Current Tax Issues 3

4 Section 1: The Economics of Taxation Chapter Objectives Explain the economic impact of taxes. List three criteria for effective taxes. Understand the two primary principles of taxation. Understand how taxes are classified. 4

5 Introduction An enormous amount of money is required to run the federal, state, and local governments of the United States. In 2003, all three levels of government collected approximately $3 trillion—or about $10,300 for every man, woman, and child in the United States. Whether we count the dollars, or the days needed to earn the dollars, it all adds up to a staggering sum. Total revenue collections by all levels of government have grown dramatically over the years. Even when adjusted for inflation and population growth, these revenues increased by nearly 800 percent since 1940. 5

6 Economic Impact of Taxes Taxes affect the factors of production and, therefore, resource allocation. A tax placed on a good at the factory raises production costs (supply curve shifts to the left); if demand stays the same, the equilibrium price goes up. Taxes affect the economy by encouraging or discouraging certain activities. A sin tax is a high-percentage tax that raises revenue while reducing consumption of a socially undesirable product. 6

7 Economic Impact of Taxes (cont.) Taxes affect productivity and economic growth by changing the incentives to save, invest, and work. The incidence of a tax is the final burden of the tax: it is easier for a producer to shift the incidence of a tax to the consumer if the demand is inelastic; the more elastic the demand, the more likely the producer will absorb a greater portion of the tax. 7

8 Criteria for Effective Taxes Criterion 1: equity or fairness; fairness is subjective, but taxes are considered fairer if they have fewer loopholes—exceptions, deductions, and exemptions. Taxes are effective when they are equitable, simple, and efficient. Criterion 2: simplicity; tax laws should be easy to understand. Criterion 3: efficiency, which means it is easy to administer and is successful at generating revenue. 8

9 Two Principles of Taxation The benefit principle states that those who benefit from government goods and services should pay in proportion to the amount of benefits they receive. The limitations of this principle are that many government services provide the greatest benefit to those who can least afford them and that benefits are hard to measure. The ability-to-pay principle is the belief that people should be taxed according to their ability to pay, regardless of the benefits they receive. The ability-to-pay principle is based on two ideas: that societies cannot always measure the benefits derived from government spending, and that people with higher incomes suffer less discomfort in paying taxes than people with lower incomes. 9

10 Types of Taxes (3 Types) A proportional tax is one that imposes the same percentage on everyone, regardless of income. A progressive tax is one that imposes a higher percentage of tax on persons with higher income. A regressive tax is one that imposes a higher percentage on low incomes than on high incomes. 10

11 Chapter Objectives Explain the progressive nature of the individual income tax. Describe the importance of the corporate tax structure. Identify other major sources of federal revenue. Section 2: The Federal Tax System 11

12 Key Terms –payroll withholding system –Internal Revenue Service (IRS) –tax return –indexing –FICA –Medicare –payroll tax –corporate income tax –excise tax –luxury good –estate tax –gift tax –customs duty –user fee 12

13 Introduction The federal government collects taxes from a number of sources. The most important sources of government revenue are individual income taxes, Social Security taxes, and corporate income taxes. 13

14 Individual Income Taxes The Federal government collects about 48 percent of its revenue from the individual income tax. Taxes are typically withheld from individual’s paychecks, with employers sending the taxes directly to the Internal Revenue Service. Individuals file a tax return on or before April 15 each year; if taxes withheld are more than the taxes owed, the individual receives a refund; if not, the individual makes a payment of the tax balance 14

15 FICA Taxes The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) tax pays for Social Security and Medicare. FICA it is the second largest source of government revenue. The FICA tax is a regressive tax. Social Security is partly a proportional tax and partly a regressive tax. 15

16 Corporate Income Taxes Corporate Income Tax is the third largest source of government revenue. Corporations pay a tax on their profits because they are considered legal entities. 16

17 Other Federal Taxes The excise tax is a regressive tax on the manufacture or sale of selected items.  The estate tax deals with the transfer of property when a person dies.  The gift tax is places on large donations of money or wealth and is paid by the donator. A customs duty is a charge levied on goods brought in from other countries. 17

18 Chapter Objectives Section 3: State and Local Tax Systems Explain how state governments collect taxes and other revenues. Differentiate between state and local revenue systems. Interpret paycheck deductions. 18 Key Terms –property tax –Payroll Withholding Statement –intergovernmental revenue

19 Introduction State and local governments, like the federal government, raise revenue in many ways. They receive funds from sales taxes, property taxes, utility revenues, and through other methods. Sometimes, they even tax us when we die. 19

20 Intergovernmental revenue are funds collected by one level of government that are distributed to another level. State Government Revenue Sources Intergovernmental revenues are the largest source of revenues for state and local governments—about one-fourth of all state revenues. A sales tax is one levied on consumer purchases for nearly all products. 20

21 State Government Revenue Sources (cont.) Employee retirement contributions make up the third largest source of income. Individual income tax revenues make up the fourth largest source of income. Other sources of revenue include interest earnings on surplus funds; fees from state-owned colleges, universities, and schools; corporate income taxes, and hospital fees. 21

22 Local Government Revenue Sources Intergovernmental revenues are generally earmarked for education and public welfare; they make up the largest source of local government revenue. Property taxes are levied on tangible and intangible products; they make up the second largest source. Local governments receive revenues from government- owned public utilities and state-owned liquor stores. 22 Some towns and cities have a sales tax, which is collected along with the state’s sales tax. Other sources of local income include hospital fees, personal taxes, and public lotteries.

23 Examine Your Paycheck 23  Many taxes we pay to federal, state, and local are deducted from your paychecks.  Payroll withholding statement: the summary statement attached to a paycheck that shows income, tax withholdings and other deductions.

24 Chapter Objectives Section 4: Current Tax Issues Describe the major tax reforms since 1980. Debate the advantages and disadvantages of the value-added tax. Explain the features of a flat tax. Discuss why future tax reforms will occur. 24 Key Terms –accelerated depreciation –investment tax credit –surcharge –alternative minimum tax –capital gains –value-added tax (VAT) –flat tax

25 Introduction The complexity of our tax code is not accidental: it is the result of adjustments and amendments by Congress to both influence and reward behavior. Tax Reform The Economic Recovery Act of 1981 reduced taxes for individuals and businesses. By the mid-1980s, Americans believed the tax code favored the rich and powerful. In 1986 Congressional tax reform limited the tax brackets to 15 percent and 28 percent. 25

26 Tax Reform (cont.) The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 added two higher income tax brackets but its goal was more to assist in balancing the federal budget than in adjusting rates for income levels. By 1997 the government had high tax revenues, so the Taxpayer Relief Act was passed giving tax credits for children and educational expenses, and reduced rates to people with capital gains from long-term investments in stocks and bonds. 26

27 The Value-Added Tax A value-added tax (VAT) places a tax on the value that manufacturers add to a good at each stage of production. Advantages to the VAT: the tax is levied on the total amount of sales less the cost of inputs; the incidence of the tax is widely spread among the manufacturers involved; it is easy to collect; it would encourage people to save. 27

28 The Value-Added Tax (cont.) Disadvantages of the VAT: taxpayers are unlikely to notice increases in VAT taxes; it would compete with state sales taxes; politicians would lose some power in promoting pet projects. Figure 9.10 28

29 The Flat Tax A flat tax is a proportional tax on individual income after a specified threshold has been reached. Advantages of the flat tax: it would be simple to report; it would close or minimize tax loopholes; it reduces the need for tax accountants and much of the IRS; it could lead to savings of up to $100 billion. Disadvantages of the flat tax: it removes the behavior incentive in the tax code; it benefits those with high incomes; it shifts tax policy away from the ability-to-pay principle. 29

30 The Inevitability of Future Reforms The complex tax code guarantees future attempts to simplify it. Unexpected economic slowdowns, such as the 2001 recession, can cause tax revenues to fall and budget deficits. Unexpected political events may require unplanned expenditures, such as Congress voting to spend $40 billion to rebuild New York City and the air traffic system after September 11, 2001. 30

31 The Inevitability of Future Reforms Tax reform is likely to continue because each political administration abruptly changes policies to suit its agenda. Politicians are reluctant to give up the power they have in adjusting the current complex system. 31

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