Presentation on theme: "Industrialization and Technology Early 1800s. A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production Technological innovations brought production."— Presentation transcript:
A shift from goods made by hand to factory and mass production Technological innovations brought production from farmhouse to factories – Invented in Britain in 1750; smuggled to U.S. – Beginning of US Factory System US slow to embrace factory system – Scarce labor – Little capital – Superiority of British factories
Workers & Wage Slaves With industrial revolution, large impersonal factories surrounded by slums full of “wage slaves” developed Long hours, low wages, unsanitary conditions, lack of heat, etc. – Labor unions illegal 1820: 1/2 of industrial workers were children under 10
Workers & Wage Slaves 1820s & 1830s: right to vote for laborers – Loyalty to Democratic party led to improved conditions – Fought for 10-hour day, higher wages, better conditions 1830s & 1840s: Dozens of strikes for higher wages or 10-hour day – 1837 depression hurt union membership Commonwealth v. Hunt – Supreme Court ruled unions not illegal conspiracies as long as they were peaceful
Population shift because of westward expansion – the West demanded transportation. – The Land Act of 1820, gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash Erie Canal started in 1817 and completed in 1825 – NY Governor DeWitt Clinton built the Erie Canal – Connected New York City from Hudson River with the Great Lakes and the West Clinton’s Big Ditch--------Other canals follow Navigable rivers and the steamboat – the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.
Built first textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Born in England on June 9, 1768 and worked in British factories. Slater came to US to make his fortune in the textile industry. Slatersville Mill was the largest and most modern industrial cotton mill of its day "Father of the American Factory System." Samuel Slater was the "Father of the American Factory System."
The Lowell System Lowell, Massachusetts, 1832 Young New England farm girls Supervised on and off the job Worked 6 days a week, 13 hours a day Escorted to church on Sunday Produced the first cloth in the US
Resourcefulness & Experimentation Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. Americans were willing to try anything. They were first copiers, then innovators. 1800 41 patents were approved. 1860 4,357 “ “ “ 1800 41 patents were approved. 1860 4,357 “ “ “
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry. He is also noted for the concept of mass production and interchangeable parts by creating dyes for pistols and rifles. Very important early pioneer in America’s industrial revolution. Cotton Production The invention which changed the South, cotton and slavery.
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine Cotton gin invented in 1793 – 50 times more effective than hand picking Raising cotton more profitable – South needs slavery more than ever for “King Cotton” HNew England factories flourish with Southern cotton
H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930. H 1807, Fulton's Clermont, was the first commercially successful and reliable steamboat. Steam boat would revolutionize water travel. H The steamboat was often the only mechanical means of river travel and freight transportation from 1808 through 1930.
Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph “WHAT GOD HATH WROUGHT”
Pioneer Railroad Promoters 1800 to 1850: Roads, canals, navigable rivers with steamboats were the main modes of transportation. 1850 to 1860, RR proved most significant development toward national economy Led to development of Time Zones Competition between Railroads and Canals Obstacles – opposition from canal backers – danger of fire – poor brakes – difference in track gauge meant changing trains – to combat this problem standard gauge was introduced meaning all track was the same size