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9/8/20151 The Canonical Gospels. 9/8/20152 Overview Each writer of the canonical Gospels paints a different portrait of Jesus based upon how his community.

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Presentation on theme: "9/8/20151 The Canonical Gospels. 9/8/20152 Overview Each writer of the canonical Gospels paints a different portrait of Jesus based upon how his community."— Presentation transcript:

1 9/8/20151 The Canonical Gospels

2 9/8/20152 Overview Each writer of the canonical Gospels paints a different portrait of Jesus based upon how his community of Jesus Followers interpreted the teachings, life and ministry of Jesus. Interpr etation Chri st Like Figur es Moder n Media Meani ng Oral Traditi on Written Traditi on Com muni ty Writer Jesus

3 9/8/20153 Introduction to the Gospels  What the Gospels are and are not  The 3-stage formation of the Gospels  The 2-source theory

4 9/8/20154 The Gospels Are:  Documents written by 2nd or 3rd generation members of Jesus movement communities  Documents that represent the different ways different groups thought about and interpreted who Jesus was and what he said and what it all meant  There are many Gospels NOT included in the New Testament: The Gospel of Thomas, The Gospel of Judas, The Gospel of Mary of Magdala, The Gospel of Peter, The Gospel of Hebrews, The Gospel of James, The Gospel of Hope, The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, etc..

5 9/8/20155 The Gospels Are NOT:  History books  Biographies of Jesus

6 9/8/20156 The 3-Stage Formation of the Gospels 1. Stuff Happened 2. Oral Tradition 3. Written Tradition

7 9/8/20157 1. Stuff Happened Jesus of Nazareth’s ministry of teaching and healing, sometime between 30-36 of the Common Era. Aaron Gray Solace in the World Pencil 37" x 23" Not for sale

8 9/8/20158 Jesus of the People Janet McKenzie Jesus of the People (First Place) Oil on canvas 30" x 48" Not for sale

9 9/8/20159 Mother Rose John Holbrook Mother Rose Silver gelatin print 16" x 20" Price: $2,000.00

10 9/8/201510 2. Oral Tradition Stories about Jesus - who he was, what he did, what he taught - are passed around and passed on by word of mouth for about 40 years.

11 9/8/201511 The Mystic Christ Father John B. Giuliani The Mystic Christ Oil on canvas 13" x 35" Price: $500.00

12 9/8/201512 Digital Collage Sara Beth Morton Jesus 2000 Digital Collage Digital Collage 30" x 36" Price: $1,000.00

13 9/8/201513 3. Written Tradition Mark is the first Gospel written, about the year 70 of the common era. Many others shortly follow, many also using Mark’s text as a basis for their own narrative.

14 9/8/201514 The Synoptics and John: One of these things is not like the others. One of these things is not like the others, One of these things just doesn't belong, Can you tell which thing is not like the others By the time I finish my song?

15 9/8/201515 The Synoptic Gospels  Synoptic means “look alike” in Greek  Mark, Matthew, and Luke are called the “synoptic” Gospels because they “look alike.”  These three Gospels contain much of the same material in the same order - they look alike.  All three Gospels focus on Jesus’ ministry as a way to emphasize Jesus’ identity and the meaning of Jesus’ mission of person.  All three end with a passion story  All three are propaganda in a religious battle about how to be Jewish

16 9/8/201516 The Gospel of John  John is different in many ways  John presents very little of the material that is also presented in the synoptics.  John focuses on the meaning of Jesus’ identity the meaning of Jesus’ mission and person as a way to give meaning and interpret the incidents of Jesus’ ministry and life that are recounted.  Whereas the synoptics tell a story to tell you their religion, Jesus’ extended theological discourses in John are the primary reason for the text’s existence.

17 9/8/201517 The Synoptics and John: One of these things is not like the others. Did you guess which thing was not like the others? Did you guess which thing just doesn't belong? If you guessed this one [JOHN] is not like the others, Then you're absolutely...right!

18 9/8/201518 The Two-Source Theory  There are many theories about how the Gospels were written. Some make more sense than others.  The most widely accepted theory among historical-literary critics is the two-source theory.  This theory holds that Mark wrote first, then both Matthew and Luke copied from Mark and from a source we do not have that we call Q, from the German word Quelle or Source.  Matthew used some material unique to a source only he seemed to have and Luke used material unique to a source only he seemed to have. This material is called special Matthew and special Luke.

19 9/8/201519 Two-Source Theory Diagram

20 9/8/201520 The Gospel of Mark  Authorship  Themes  Jesus

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22 9/8/201522 Authorship of Mark  Author is unknown, but church tradition attributes the writing to a follower of Peter in Rome.  Place of authorship is unknown, but it is a Greek speaking Christian community outside of Palestine, maybe Rome or Alexandria, maybe Asia Minor.  Greek style is quick, unlearned, composition, almost slang at times.  The author invents a new genre of literature - the Gospel.

23 9/8/201523 Themes in Mark  Mark is very preoccupied with the second coming of Jesus. The author thinks this will happen SOON.  This concern with the end of time and the second coming is called Apocalypse from the Greek meaning to reveal or uncover.  Chapter 13 of Mark is called The Little Apocalypse.  Mark is very concerned with social justice  Mark is NOT concerned with Jesus’ birth. Note there is no “Christmas” story.

24 9/8/201524 The Second Coming of Christ Dhimitri Zonia Second Coming of Christ Oil 30" x18" Not for sale

25 9/8/201525 Jesus in Mark: The Secret Messiah  When Jesus heals, he tells the healed person or the evil spirit NOT to reveal his identity as the Messiah of the Jews.  Mark keeps Jesus’ identity as a messiah secret because he doesn’t want Jesus to be seen as a Theos Aner or Divine Man.  Divine Men were wandering charismatic healers and philosophers and snake oil salesmen. One of their stocks-in-trade was that they wanted EVERYONE to know who was doing the healing and to bring friends.

26 9/8/201526 The Messianic Secret  Divine Men would preach and heal in town squares and market places, proclaiming their powers and greatness for all to see and hear. They would ask for money for their services. Many, if not most, were fakes.  Mark doesn’t want his Jesus to seem like one of these to his reader, so he sets up the secret messiah persona.

27 9/8/201527 "The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed."

28 9/8/201528 Steven Bantu Biko  Steven Biko, 1946-77, South African political leader. A medical student, he founded (1969) a black student organization and developed a national "black consciousness" movement to combat racism and apartheid policies. Arrested in 1977, he died in police custody, prompting international protests and a UN arms embargo. In 1997 five former policemen admitted killing him.

29 9/8/201529 Christ as Black Death Row Inmate Marylyn Felion Christ as Poor, Black, Death Row Inmate Watercolor and acrylic 26" x 36" Not for sale

30 9/8/201530 Cry Freedom  Richard Attenborough's ambitious 1987 epic, Cry Freedom, is seen as an overview of conditions in South Africa at the height of apartheid.  This was a second biographical movie for Attenborough - this time about black leader Steve Biko - after the Oscar- sweeping success of Gandhi  Denzel Washington memorably plays Biko, a former student leader who founded the Black Consciousness Movement in 1969  Biko's message inspired a generation. He is portrayed in the film is as a charismatic leader in the model of Martin Luther King

31 9/8/201531 The Gospel of Matthew  Authorship  Themes  Jesus

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33 9/8/201533 Themes in Matthew  Matthew seeks to connect the Jesus stories to the Jewish tradition.  Matthew seeks to provide a guidebook, a new law or new Torah for Jewish Christians.  Matthew is the most Jewish of the Gospels

34 9/8/201534 White Throne of Judgement Devi Anne Moore White Throne of Judgment Mixed medium 48" x 60" Price:$7,000.00

35 9/8/201535 Matthew’s Jesus  Jesus is a prophet, rabbi, teacher in the Jewish tradition.  He is the promised Messiah of the Jews.  Like the rabbis of his time, he teaches his disciples, seated, using catchy, clever sayings, stories, parables and allegories.  He uses the phrase “Kingdom of Heaven” because observant Jews would find it disrespectful to use the phrase “Kingdom of GOD,” thus unnecessarily invoking God’s name.

36 9/8/201536 Yashua Peter De Firis Yashua (Second Place) Oil on canvas 9" x 12" Not for sale

37 9/8/201537 Matthew’s Theme: Rabbi & Teacher  Matthew focuses on the Jewish tradition by presenting and Jesus’ role as rabbi/teacher by presenting Jesus’ “New Law” in 5 major sections to parallel the Torah:  5:1-7:27 - Sermon on the Mount  10:5-42 - Missionary Teaching  13:1-52 - Parable Collection  18:1-35 Teachings on Community  24:3-25:26 - Apocalyptic Discourse

38 9/8/201538 “Do you have the ganas? The desire to succeed?”

39 9/8/201539 Jaime Escalante Born in La Paz, Bolivia,he taught Physics and Mathematics for 14 years. He migrated to the United States in 1964, not knowing English. In 1976 he began teaching at Garfield High School, in east Los Angeles, California, where drugs, gangs and violence were facts of daily life. Despite these obstacles, Escalante was able to motivate a small group of students to take, and pass the AP calculus exam in 1982. The Educational Testing Service, which administers the test, invalidated the scores, believing that the students had cheated. Most of the 18 pupils retook the test and passed, making Escalante a national hero almost overnight.

40 9/8/201540 Christ Awaiting Trial Mark Mckelvie Christ Awaiting Trial Oil on canvas 28" x 47" Price: $1,500.00

41 9/8/201541 Stand and Deliver This splendid semi-documentary on the life of ghetto school teacher Jaime Escalante (played by Edward James Olmos) has already become one of the classic films about American education. As a result of its faithfulness to life, the film is a profound tribute to the positive impact a good teacher can make. Day and Time for viewing aChurh?

42 9/8/201542 The Gospel of Luke  Authorship  Composition/Style  Jesus

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44 9/8/201544 Authorship of Luke  Author is unknown  Traditionally attributed to a physician friend of St. Paul (Col 4:14)  Dated to sometime between 80-90 CE  Place of composition is a Gentile Christian community outside Palestine (author makes geographical errors -neither he nor his community had much connection to Jesus’ homeland)  Work is part I of a two-part work (Acts)  Audience is Theophilus (literally “friend of God) This could be an individual, but more likely any and all friend(s) of God

45 9/8/201545 By His Wounds We Are Healed Morman Unsworth By His Wounds We Are Healed Collage with Thai rice paper and photograhps 22" x 31" Price: $1,500.00

46 9/8/201546 Luke’s Style  Well-written Greek  Resembles a Greek novel of the Roman period.  Hero has many adventures and overcomes evil  Story moves Geographically from Nazareth in the north to Jerusalem in the south in then Acts through the provinces to Rome - Jesus’ message is taken to the world.  Luke is doctrine as narrative

47 9/8/201547 Jesus in Central America Douglas DePice Jesus in Central America Oil pastel on paper 6'8" x 4'4” Price: $1,000.00

48 9/8/201548 Luke’s Jesus  Jesus is the “perfect Christian” in Luke. He prays, preaches, heals the sick, feeds the poor, ministers to the outcast (women, the poor, tax collectors, prostitutes, etc).  Jesus is a missionary, moving from his home town to the center of Jewish faith, and then his followers carry the mission to the center (at the time) of the world, Rome.

49 9/8/201549 "And if they kill me, I will rise again in the Salvadoran people."

50 9/8/201550 Luke-Acts as Novel  Wandering Preachers  Miracle working hero  Sea adventures  Long dramatic speeches  Large geographic scope  Fits into the cultural world

51 9/8/201551 What Luke Gets Wrong  Setting - he misnames places and gets directions wrong in Israel  Paul - his version of Paul and Paul’s version of Paul don’t match up.  Jesus’s birth story - Bethlehem is nice, it give connection to a great Davidic past, but he has to fabricate a census to do it.

52 9/8/201552 Archbishop Oscar Romero Oscar Arnulfo Romero was installed as the archbishop of San Salvador on February 22, 1977, amid growing social and political tension in El Salvador. During his tenure as archbishop, Romero evolved from an apolitical compromise choice for the church to an outspoken voice of the lower class. Since his assassination on March 24, 1980, Romero has become a martyr for the masses of the lower class who seek to displace the reigning government and the oligarchical class system.

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54 9/8/201554 Romero Set against the bloody backdrop of a country ripped apart by civil upheaval, ROMERO is the life story of archbishop Oscar Romero of El Salvador, who, after facing torture and oppression, made a stand against social injustices in his country. Raul Julia stars as Romero, a hero to the El Salvadoran people who fought against political injustice and violence and was assassinated by the military junta in 1980.

55 9/8/201555 The Gospel of John  Authorship  Composition  Themes  Jesus

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57 9/8/201557 Authorship of John  NOT by the disciple John  NOT by the author of Revelation (John of Patmos) - due to differences in style, content, theme, etc.  NOT by the author of the letters 1,2,and/or 3 John, although these writers may have been members of the same community or related communities - the community of the beloved disciple.  Author is a Gentile Christian, writing near end of first century of common era, after the split with Jewish Christians.

58 9/8/201558 Composition of John JOHN and the SYNOPTICS Only a few incidents in John also appear in the synoptics:  Call of disciples  Healing of official’s son  Feeding miracle  Sea miracle  Peter’s confession  Entry into Jerusalem and Passion story (although very different in tone and style than synoptics)

59 9/8/201559 Sunday School’s Greatest Hits Many famous Gospel stories appear ONLY in John:  Wedding at Cana (water into wine)  Nicodemus  The Samaritan woman at the well  Rising of Lazarus  Woman caught in adultery (strangely enough this is Lukan material)

60 9/8/201560 Living Water S. Graham Sargent Living Water (second rendition) Acrylic on canvas 15" x 30" Price:$1,200.00

61 9/8/201561 What’s Missing? Conspicuous in their absence from John are the following:  Teachings about the Kingdom of God  Parables  Exorcisms and demons

62 9/8/201562 Sources for Composition Rudolf Bultman, in a 1941 commentary on John, says John has 3 major sources: 1. A discourse source derived from gnostic revelation discourses 2. A miracle collection or “signs source” 3. A passion narrative

63 9/8/201563 Compositional Structure 1. Introduction, 1:1-51 2. The Book of Signs, 2:1-12:50 3. The Book of Glory, consisting of two parts: the Farewell Discourses in 13:1- 17:26 and the Passion Narrative in 18;1- 20:30. 4. Epilogue, consisting of appearance in Galilee, 21:1-25

64 9/8/201564 Narrative Pattern of Composition 1. Action - usually a healing or a miracle 2. Dialogue between Jesus and an opponent or between Jesus and a disciple 3. Monologue - Jesus explains his action or his teaching in the dialogue 4. Appendix - sometimes there is a follow-up dialogue, action, or prayer before the setting moves on to the next action and sequence repeats

65 9/8/201565 The Millenium Prayer Patricia Friend The Millennium Prayer Oil and mixed media 56.25" x 70" Not for sale

66 9/8/201566 John’s Jesus  An obvious Divine Man sent to earth to teach those who would listen  The perfect being as God incarnate  A mystical, messiah, who seems to know he is playing the theological role assigned to him by a higher divinity (or later theological interpreters).  Here is a character very different from Mark’s secret but human messiah, Matthew’s rabbi, and Luke’s pastor.

67 9/8/201567 Themes in John  Christology - John is very concerned with what it means for Jesus to be the messiah, the Christ.  Dualism - author uses many symbolic opposites: light/dark, earth/heaven, spirit/flesh, belief/unbelief, above/below  Signs and Faith - miracles that induce faith  Eschatology - the end of time/world  Presence of the spirit/advocate among believers

68 9/8/201568 “What difference does it make to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, whether the mad destruction is wrought under the name of totalitarianism or the holy name of liberty or democracy?”

69 9/8/201569 The Light of Conscience Jorge Alexandre Rodriques The Light of Conscience Oil on canvas 59" x 31.5” Price: $25,000.00

70 9/8/201570 Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India. He became one of the most respected spiritual and political leaders of the 1900's. Gandhi helped free the Indian people from British rule through nonviolent resistance, and is honored by his people as the father of the Indian Nation. The Indian people called Gandhi Mahatma, meaning Great Soul. -

71 9/8/201571 Gandhi The 1982 movie, Gandhi, by Richard Attenborough, starring Ben Kingsley in the title role, won 9 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Director, Actor, and Screenplay. Gandhi returns in 1915 to an India he feels that he barely knows anymore, he shocks those gathered to welcome him as he gets off the ship by wearing the simple clothing of an Indian peasant, a practice he continues for the rest of life. Watching the movie give some insight into three aspects of India’s history that shape its current legal system: (1) the blending of English and Indian culture and institutions (2) the tension between Hindus and Muslims, and (3) the visionary leadership of Gandhi.

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