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Modern Era Review 1750-1914 AP World History - Klinect.

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Presentation on theme: "Modern Era Review 1750-1914 AP World History - Klinect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modern Era Review 1750-1914 AP World History - Klinect

2 Major Themes Revolutions and independence movements Nationalism and the nation-state Industrialization Reform and Reaction Imperialism and its impact Emancipation Cultural influences

3 Revolutions & Independence Movements American Revolution (1776-1781) –Seven Year’s War (1756-1763) –“no taxation w/out representation” –Declaration of Independence –“all men are created equal” Reality = no legal and political equality –Conservative revolution –Popular sovereignty

4 Revolutions & Independence Movements French Revolution (1789-1815) –Radical revolution … wanted to replace “old order” with a completely “new order” –Three Estates … problems –National Assembly … Bastille … Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen –Max Robespierre … “Reign of Terror” –Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte … Napoleonic Era & the accomplishments –Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

5 Revolutions & Independence Movements Haitian Revolution (1802-04) –French … sugar production –American & French Revolution impact along with Enlightenment ideas –L’Overture … slave revolt … only successful slave revolt in history –Many nations, including the USA, refused to recognize independent Haiti –Haitian Revolution will inspire other L.A. nations

6 Revolutions & Independence Movements Latin American Revolutions –Spanish & Portuguese minority (30,000) dominated the 3.5 million creoles, and 10 million less-privileged peoples. –Creoles began the revolutions Did NOT seek social reform, only to remove peninsulares from power –Napoleon’s impact –Father Hidalgo (Mexico); Bolivar (northern South America); San Martin (southern S.A.); Dom Pedro (Brazil) –Gran Colombia

7 Nationalism & the Nation-State Unification of Italy –Roman Catholic Church had discouraged nationalism. Why? –Papal states = papal resistance –Garibaldi & Cavour – Victor Emmanuell –Italy united by 1870 w/ the help of political maneuvering … alliances … deals

8 Nationalism & the Nation-State Unification of Germany –Prussia became increasingly more powerful after the fall of Napoleon –Otto von Bismarck … “blood and iron” –United Germany through wars w/ Denmark, Austria, and France (Franco-Prussian War) –Germany quickly approached the UK and USA as top industrial powers –Led to Germany wanting to “flex their muscles” entering the 20 th century … World War I??

9 Nationalism & the Nation-State Zionism –Nationalism’s view of minorities? –Jews had been the biggest “target” for many European nations … anti-semitism –Theodor Herzl (1897) –Balfour Declaration (1917 - just after this time period)

10 Nationalism & the Nation-State Latin America –1830’s = LA was independent –Leaders wanted representative gov’t but felt the mass population was unprepared –Early constitutions created order and representation … property & literacy were pre- requisites to vote –Economic problems = rise of caudillos –Catholic Church remained strong –Instability led to foreign intervention (Monroe Doctrine)

11 Industrialization Modern industry => scientific activity and invention of the 17 th century James Watt – steam engine – change? Before IndustrializationAfter Industrialization Agricultural-rural economyCapitalist-urban economy Family-farm economyWage earning economy Asian-based manufacturingFactory-based manufacturing Rural-based populationUrban population

12 Industrialization Preconditions for industrialization –Technical knowledge and invention –Large population to serve as a workforce –Possession of natural resources to be turned into manufactured goods –Investment capital (money) to build factories –A stable and capitalist-minded government Poorer nations have large population but lack investment capital US and Germany surpassed Britain by 1900

13 Industrialization Technology –Higher-grade steel => transportation and weaponry –Engine-driven steel ships replaced wooden ships –Trains revolutionized transportation and were transplanted into Asian & African colonies

14 Industrialization Impact on gender, family, and social structures –Slavery declined & free-wage laborers declined –Family as an economic moved to production outside the home –Men’s status increased because industrial work and the wage were considered more important than domestic work –Middle-class women generally did not work outside the home –“cult of domesticity”

15 Industrialization Global effects of industrialization –Global division of labor emerged –Industrial societies needed raw materials: Cotton (India & Egypt) Rubber (Brazil & Congo) Cash crops (Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and SE Asia) –These areas developed little to no industrialization themselves –Wealth was concentrated in the hands of a few –“Dependency Theory”

16 Industrialization Reactions to Industrialization: –Socialism Anti-capitalist reform movements Karl Marx –Overthrow of the moneyed class (bourgeoisie) –Establish a “workers state” –Unionism Less radical Sought better wages and working conditions Britain led the way in reforms to better working conditions

17 Reform and Reaction Ottoman Empire –By the 18 th century they had fallen behind the Europeans in strength and technology … were more vulnerable –Central gov’t less effective while provinces became more independent, often controlling their own armies –Muhammad Ali … seized power in Egypt after the fall of Napoleon and was only minimally subordinate to the Ottoman sultans –Ali’s son commissioned the French to build the Suez Canal that opened in 1869 –Transformed Egypt into a critical strategic location –Ottomans also lost trade b/c of Europen bypass directly to India & China –Atlantic Ocean now became the focal point away from the Ottomans –European goods flooded Ottoman market and they became dependent on foreign loans –Huge blow to the ego of the Ottomans

18 Reform and Reaction Ottomans (cont.) –Mahmud II; reformer; reorganized secondary education, built new roads, telegraph lines, and a postal service along the western models –Tanzimat Era (1839-1879) … used the French legal system as a guide … public trials and equality were instituted before Muslim laws and those of other religious groups … secular –Obviously these reforms were met with opposition from various religious groups and the bureaucracy –Many reformers were exiled (Young Turks) but they returned in 1908 and led a coup and overthrew the sultan. –Years of internal struggle led Europe to refer to them as “the sick man of Europe” … –The Ottomans eventually ally themselves with the Germans

19 Reform and Reaction Russia –Russia was autocratic, multiethnic, multilingual, and multicultural … very similar to the Ottomans –Czars supported boyars and Russian Orthodox Church –Peasants = majority of population, serfdom –Expanded vastly > led to Crimean War (1856-58) … defeat –Czar Alexander II > emancipated serfs in 1861; created zemstovs (local/district assemblies) but were still subordinate to czar; began construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad; industrialization –Was assassinated by radical revolutionaries (Lenin’s brother) “intelligentsia” … university students and intellectuals (1881) –Later czars reverted back to repression, not reform, to control the masses –Czar Nicholas II & the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) –Bloody Sunday & Revolution of 1905

20 Reform and Reaction China –China, like the Ottomans & Russians had to deal with their own issues of reform and reaction. –Qing (Manchu) saw massive population growth, new food crops from the Americas, and new monetary system based on silver –Opium War (1839) … unequal treaties … extraterritoriality –Taiping Rebellion (1850’s to 1860’s) … Hong Xiuquan … anti- Chinese society rebellion … deadliest rebellion in world history –Reform > Self-Strengthening Movement … “Chinese learning at the base, Western learning for use.” … shipyards, railroads, & weapon industries along with science academies –Hundred Days Reform … Emperor Guangzu … constitutional monarchy, guarantee civil right liberties, encourage foreign influence … led to Boxer Rebellion (1899-1900) –Sun Yat Sen … Pu Yi … end of the Qing Dynasty (1911) –Three Principles of Sun: Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism

21 Reform and Reaction Japan –Japan made the most radical reforms and changes in its response to the challenges of reform and reaction … emerged as a world power –Commodore Perry (1853) … told to leave … “revere the emperor and repel the barbarians.” –Younger samurai (reformers) wanted to undermine the bakufu … “men of spirit” overthrew the Shogun … wanted to industrialize after seeing the British defeat China easily in Opium Wars –Meiji Restoration (Revolution) of 1868 … rapid industrialization and modernization of Japan … modern infrastructure and military –Victories against China and Russia heading into the 20 th century gave Japan aspirations of empire in Asia

22 Imperialism and its Impact Three motives: economic, political, and cultural –Economic: Colonies = sources of raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. –Political: colonies were strategic sites with harbors and supply stations for naval ships –Culturally: hoped to convert the Asian and African people to Christianity … “White Man’s Burden” India –UK’s interest was purely a business venture … British East India Company … took advantage of Mughal weaknesses –Sepoys … Sepoy Revolt (1857) –Tea, coffee, and opium were cultivated –British built railroads, telegraphs, canals, harbors, and irrigation systems … English-style schools were set up for elite Indians –Indian National Congress founded in 1885 –Muslim League –Promised independence if they fought in World War I

23 Imperialism and its Impact Africa –Europe had little presence in Africa outside coastal trading posts for most of modern world history... –“Scramble for Africa” (1875-1900) … Europe dominates entire continent –King Leopold II of Belgium – Congo Free State … holocaust? –British in Egypt (1882) … seized Suez Canal –Berlin Conference Japan –After accepting western help seized Korea (1894) and Manchuria (1904) after military victories –Japan was now on the world stage

24 Imperialism and its Impact Legacy of Imperialism –Manufacturers became suppliers of raw materials and consumers of imported goods –Migration increased … USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, South Africa in search for cheap land and better economic opportunities –Indentured servants (Asia & Africa) went to tropical lands for plantation labor –Scientific racism (Social Darwinism)

25 Emancipation Slavery –Mid-19 th century liberals pushed for abolition … Enlightenment influence –Slavery, from an economic sense, became less profitable Prices of sugar, cotton, and tobacco fell –Emancipation: Britain (1833) France (1848) United States (1865) Brazil (1888) –Freedom ≠ equality

26 Emancipation Serfdom –Key to social change in Russia had to be the emancipation of the serfs –Opposition to serfdom had been growing since the 1700’s –“obstacle to economic development” as well as source of instability and revolts –Czar Alexander II (1861) freed serfs & compensated landowners for the loss of land and serfs –Serf labor obligations were gradually cancelled –Won few political rights and paid huge taxes on their “new land” –Their emancipation led to very little increase in agricultural production –Did create a large urban labor force necessary for industrialization

27 Cultural Influences African and Asian Influences on European Art –European artists took an interest in African & Asian artistic styles –Impressionism > based on Japanese influences in nature –Modern art was soon launched, free from traditional constraints Cultural Policies of Meiji Japan –Heavily influenced by the Western culture –Japanese literature > writers experimented with Western verse –Architects & artists created large buildings of steel with Greek columns like those seen in the West Leisure & Consumption –Industrialization brought about higher wages & fewer work hours … brought about new concept of “leisure time” –Advertisements > “needed things” –Newspapers, theaters, and professional sports all became popular

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