Presentation on theme: "Economic Resources And Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Economic Resources And Systems Chapter 2Economic Resources And Systems
2 scarcity: a shortage of resources A basic economic problem is how to manage resources.factors of production: all components necessary to produce a society’s goods and servicesThere are four types of economic resources.
3 Natural Resources are raw materials found in nature. They become factors of production when used to produce goods. They are often basic elements that can be combined in multiple ways. The economy of many countries is based on its natural resources.renewable resources can be reproducednonrenewable resources are limited
4 Human Resourcesare the knowledge, efforts, and skills people bring to their work. Labor can be skilled or unskilled, physical or intellectual.Workers employed in the same types of jobs often belong to labor unions. Unions negotiate with management for better pay, hours, and working conditions in a process called collective bargaining.
5 Capital Resourcesare the things used to produce goods and services, such as buildings, materials and equipment.This differs from capital, or money.
6 Entrepreneurial Resources Are required to meet the changing wants and needs of people. Entrepreneurs recognize the need for new goods and services. They improve on ways to use resources, or create and produce new ones.This is a key to dealing with scarcity.
7 Making Decisions About Production Scarcity forces societies to answer some basic economic questions. No society has enough productive resources available to produce everything people want. Every society, therefore, must make choices.Rules and regulations determine choices.The three basic economic questions are:What should be produced?How should it be produced?Who should share in what is produced?
8 What Should Be Produced? Every country must decide how to use its resources to meet the needs of its people. It has to determine what to produce and how much to produce. The resources used for one purpose can’t also be used for something else.
9 How Should It Be Produced? What methods will be used, how many people will work on the production, and what will be the quality of the items produced?An important factor is the quantity of available resources.
10 Who Should Share in What Is Produced? People can’t get everything they want because society doesn’t have enough resources. Choosing how goods and services are distributed interests people the most. In most societies, people can have as many goods and services as they can afford to buy. Thus, income determines how many goods and services are possessed.
11 Types of Economic Systems Economics studies how society chooses to use resources to produce and distribute goods and services for people’s consumption.To use its limited resources effectively, every nation needs and economic system. An economic systems determines how resources will be used. Its primary goal is to provide people with a minimum standard of living, or quality of life.
12 Market EconomyDecisions are made in the marketplace according to the laws of supply and demand.Price plays an important role in the market economy. It is a major factor in supply and demand.Demand is the amount or quantity of goods and services that consumers are willing to buy at various prices.Supply is the amount of goods and services the producers will prove at various prices.Equilibrium price is reached when the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied meet.
13 Capitalism: a market economy system Capitalism: a market economy system. Resources are privately owned, and government control of the marketplace is minimal. The primary role of government is to support the marketplace by removing obstacles such as trade barriers.A market economy offers incentives:profit motive: the reward for taking a risk that encourages people to start a businesscompetition: several businesses producing or selling the same type of merchandise (this encourages cheaper and better products)It provides the individual with the freedom to choose products, and the freedom to start a business or choose a career. However, those without desired job skills do not get an income and monopolies can occur.
14 Command Economy Also called a planned or managed economy. A central authority makes the key economic decisions. This authority is usually the government, or state.In a strong command economy, such as communism, the state makes all of the economic decisions and controls all resources.
15 In a moderate command economy, such as socialism, there is some form of private enterprise. The state owns major resources and makes key economic decisions, but individuals may own some businesses.Advantages: guarantees an equal standard of living, less crime and povertyDisadvantages: little choice of what to buy, a lack of non-necessities, no incentive to produce a better product, fixed wages, and no incentive for entrepreneurship
16 Mixed EconomyFew nations have economies totally based in one model or the other.Most nations have a mixed economy, a combination of a market and command economy. The state takes care of people’s needs while the marketplace takes care of people’s wants. There is some government regulation of business.In every country, one is dominant. However, most countries find a mixed economy is the best way to manage their limited resources.