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Published bySherilyn Walsh Modified over 7 years ago
Diagnosis and Treatment When a person enters an emergency ward with a heart or cardiovascular problem, there are procedures to be followed.
Diagnosis and Treatment First, a blood sample is taken to test if there are proteins present that indicate heart damage. Then the patient is hooked up to an electrocardiograph which monitors the electrical impulses in the heart and provides a printout called an electrocardiogram (ECG) that shows if the heart is beating normally.
Heart Attacks A heart attack is caused by blockage of the coronary arteries, the arteries that bring blood to the heart muscle tissue. The first step in treatment is to take anti- clotting drugs to prevent any further blockage.
Heart Attacks Next, oxygen is given to ensure enough is reaching all the cells of the body. The doctor will then read the ECG which tells him/her where the heart muscle has been damaged, but not the extent of the damage.
Heart Attacks To get more information, the doctor performs a cardiac catheterization: 1. A catheter is inserted in an artery in the groin or arm area. 2. X-ray dye is injected into the catheter and it is guided along the artery to the blockage.
Heart Attacks Once at the blockage, another procedure, called angioplasty, occurs: 1. A deflated balloon is inserted into the catheter and guided to the blockage. 2. At the blockage, it is inflated, allowing normal blood flow. 3. A stent is usually left in place to ensure the artery does not narrow again.
Bypass Surgery An alternative treatment to angioplasty is bypass surgery. Much more complicated and invasive procedure. A piece of a vein from another region of the body is attached to the clogged artery in order to bypass the clog.
Other Heart Problems Heart Disease CategoryDescription Coronary Artery DiseaseBlockage of the arteries that supply the heart muscle with oxygen (i.e. a heart attack) ArrhythmiasMalfunctions of the electrical system that controls heartbeat Valve DisordersDysfunction of one of the heart valves Heart Muscle DiseaseInflammation or infection of the heart muscle itself
Causes of Heart Disease/Problems The main factors in causing heart disease are: 1. Obesity/Poor Diet 2. Smoking 3. Physical Inactivity 4. Diabetes 5. Heredity (DNA)
Prevention Basically to ensure a healthy heart, avoid smoking, eat right and exercise daily. These changes to a person’s lifestyle may be recommended by a doctor if they survive a heart attack or heart disease.
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