2 Definition Latin word , Currere = run Blue print of an educational programmeCurriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio.-CunninghamArtist= teacherMaterial= studentIdeals= objectivesStudio= educational institute
3 Curriculum is a systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected experiences planned by a school for a defined group of students to attain the aim of a particular educational programme (Florence nightingale)A curriculum does not mean only the academic subjects traditionally taught in the school but it includes the totality of experiences that a public receives through the manifold activities that go on in the school, workshop, play ground, library, laboratory and in the informal contacts between teachers and pupils (secondary education commission )
4 What a curriculum is not A list of subjects to be transmitted and learnedthat is a syllabusdetails of methods and timesthat is a timetable
5 Nursing CurriculumNursing Curriculum is the learning opportunities and the learning activities that the faculty plans and implement in various settings for a particular group of students for a specified period of time in order to attain the objectives
6 Components of nursing curriculum Statement of PhilosophyStatement of the objectivesTotal duration of the educational programDetailed Course Plans: Subject Matter, allotted time in terms of theory and practical hoursProgramme of evaluation
7 Models of CurriculumRalph Tyler’s behavioral objectives (product) theory(1950)Stenhouse’s process model(1975)Lawton’s cultural analysis model(1983)Beattie’s four fold model(1987)
8 Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principles This is also popularly known as Tyler’s Rationale. He posited four fundamental questions or principles in examining any curriculum in schoolsWhat educational purpose should the school seek to attain? (Purposes of the school)What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? (Educational experiences related to the purposes)How can these educational purposes be effectively organized? (Organization of the experiences)How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? (Evaluation of the experiences)
9 Criteria for a desirable Curriculum The curriculum should describe the theory form ie, subject in the real form of community needsCurriculum should cope up with the knowledge explosion and scientific advancementsUse all the teaching personal in most efficient and economic wayShould use the logical precise and effective technology which are currently availableShould be consistent with the theoretical framework of all the subjects
10 Should enable the student to do active practice Should provide facilities for testing the learned behaviourShould be such as to produce graduates who are capable of being creative for the next years at least.Should spend a reasonable length of time in order to accomplish the goal.Should be enriched with the activities for professional and personal growth of learners.
11 Curriculum vs Syllabus The Syllabus includes list of subjects, content outline for each subject and broad time allocationsA syllabus is simply an outline and time line of a particular course. It will typically give a brief overview of the course objectives, course expectations, list reading assignments, homework deadlines, and exam dates.Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification The curriculum is developed by the teacher or teaching team and is made up of the experiences students will have in the course.
12 Types of Curriculum Traditional or subject centered Child centered Activity curriculumExperience curriculumUndifferentiated CurriculumBasic Education CurriculumLife centered or balanced CurriculumCorrelated CurriculumIntegrated CurriculumOfficial Curriculum: proposed by scholars and professional organizationsActual Curriculum or Institutional Curriculum: what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schoolsHidden Curriculum: Things students learn in school that are not part of the written curriculum. Includes things like behaviour, collaboration, teamwork
13 Types of Nursing curriculum According to Olivia BevisLegitimate curriculum: recognized and acknowledged by the faculty and students as ‘real curriculum’ and approved by the accreditation bodiesIllegitimate curriculum: it values and teaches many other things such as caring, compassion, power etc. taught because teachers feel a moral obligation to their studentsHidden curriculumNull curriculum: that exists only in hearts.(critical thinking and intellectual development)
14 Levels of CurriculumSocietal CurriculumThe institutional CurriculumThe instructional Curriculum