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Research Methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Methods

2 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain - Structure
Contrast X-Rays – inject something that absorbs X-rays Cerebral angiography

3 Computed Tomography (CT Scan)
cross sectional images

4 CT SCAN When: Find cause of symptoms (confusion, vision problems, headaches, paralysis) Trauma Guidance for biopsy What: bleeding in brain, clot, enlarged cavities, fractures, disease, tumors

5 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Produces 3-D images with high spatial resolution

6 Methods of Visualizing the Living Human Brain - Functional
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Inject radioactive 2-DG Functional MRI (fMRI) Visualizing oxygen flow in the brain

7 fMRI Vs PET Nothing injected.
Provides both structural and functional information in one image Spatial resolution is better than with PET Can create 3-D images of activity over the entire brain


9 Electroencephalgram (EEG)
Measure overall brain activity Epilepsy Sleep Disorders Monitor Brain activity during anethesia

10 Invasive Physiological Research Methods
Animal research Stereotaxic surgery Lesioning Electrical stimulation Invasive recording methods Manipulating or measuring within the brain Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon

11 Stereotaxic Surgery Used to position experimental devices within the brain Stereotaxic atlas – provides coordinates for locating structures within the brain Bregma – a point on the top of the skull often used as a reference point Sterotaxic instrument – used to hold head steady and guide the device to be inserted Copyright © 2006 by Allyn and Bacon



14 Lesion Methods Remove, damage, or destroy a part of the brain to observe impact on behavior Types of lesions Aspiration lesions – suction Radio-frequency lesions (high frequency current) – heat destroys tissue Knife cuts – may damage surrounding area Used to eliminate conduction in a nerve or tract


16 Cognitive Neuroscience
Goal is to identify the parts of the brain that mediate various constituent cognitive processes Paired-image subtraction technique – compare PET or fMRI images during several different cognitive tasks

17 Behavioral Paradigms Procedures developed for the investigation of a particular behavioral phenomenon Traditional conditioning paradigms Skinner boxes Mazes

18 Autopsies & Brain Damage

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