Presentation on theme: "INGREDIENTS AND TECHNIQUES"— Presentation transcript:
1 INGREDIENTS AND TECHNIQUES BAKINGINGREDIENTS AND TECHNIQUES
2 Basic IngredientsAll baked products are made by using a combination of the following ingredientsIt is the amounts of the ingredients used and how they are combined and baked that determines the type of product.
3 FLOUR Protein and starch in flour make up most of the structure. Gluten - one of the proteins found in flour.It affects the texture and helps to determine how a product will rise.All-purpose flour - a wheat flourGives good results for most products.Bread flour - highest gluten contentGives bread a strong structure
4 Cake flour - contains less gluten -gives cakes a tender structureWhole wheat flour has weaker gluten than all purposeFlour.Products made only with whole wheat flour rise lessand have a heavy texture.Whole grain rye or cornmeal have either weak gluten or No gluten. They are usually combined with all-purpose Flour in equal proportions.
5 STORAGE OF FLOUR WHOLE GRAINS SHOULD BE STORED IN THE REFRIGERATOR. STORE OTHER FLOURS IN AIRTIGHT CONTAINERS IN A COOL, DRY PLACE.
6 LIQUID Needed to help form the structure of the product. Water and milk most common.Milk adds flavor and nutrientsAnd helps baked goods brown betterUse skim milk to reduce fat content
7 LEAVENING AGENTSPROVIDE AIR, STEAM, OR GAS TO HELP BAKED PRODUCTS RISE.AIR - trapped in mixtures as they are beatenCreaming fat and sugarSifting flourAdding beaten egg whitesAngel food cake
8 STEAM Leavens products that contain high amounts of water. Steam expands, causing the product to rise.
9 YEAST Microorganism that produces carbon dioxide gas as it grows It needs food (flour or sugar), liquid, and a warm temperature to grow.Active dry yeastQuick-rising yeast - leavens the dough about twice as quicklyStore at room temperatureUse before expiration date.
10 BAKING SODAIs used whenever the recipe calls for an acid liquid such as buttermilk, yogurt, or sour milk.Produces carbon dioxide gas when combined with liquids.
11 BAKING POWDERLeavening agent made of baking soda and a powdered acid such as cream of tartar.Double-acting baking powder releases some carbon dioxide gas when first mixed with a liquid, then the rest is released when it is heated.
12 FAT Adds richness, flavor, and tenderness Solids Liquid Shortening, lard, butter, and margarineRegular margarine can be used in place of butter or shorteningDo not use soft, whipped, or liquid margarine or spreads; they contain water or oil which will affect the results.Substitute solid shortening for butter or margarine.LiquidOilsSolid and liquid fats cannot be substitute for one another.
13 EGGSAdd flavor, nutrients, richness, and color to baked products, as well as structure.When beaten they add air to the mixture.Two egg whites can substitute for 1 whole egg, to reduce fat and cholesterol.
14 SWEETNERS Sugar the most common Makes baked products tender, adds sweetness and flavor, and helps the crust brown.Granulated sugar, brown sugar, honey, corn syrup, molasses, and powdered sugar.Store most sweeteners in tightly covered containers in a cool place.
15 FLAVORINGS Fruits and nuts add both flavor and texture Herbs, spices, extracts are used in small amounts for flavor.store in tightly closed containers.
16 COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS Characteristics of a baked product are influenced by how the ingredients are combined
17 GLUTENWhen flour and liquid are mixed together the gluten in flour “develops” or becomes strong and elastic.The longer the mixing time, the more the gluten is developed.Giving the product a coarse texture; yeast breads.Ingredients just mixed to combine ingredients result in fine, tender textured products; cakes and quick breads.
18 BATTERS Pour Batters Drop Batters Thin enough to pour in a steady stream.Used to make cakes, pancakes, and waffles.Drop BattersThick,Usually spooned into pansUsed to make quick breads and cookies.
19 DOUGHS have less liquid than batters SOFT DOUGHSSoft and sticky but can be touched and handledRolled biscuits, yeast breads and rolls, and some cookies.STIFF DOUGHSFirm to the touchEasy to work with and cutForm the basis for pie crust and some cookies.
20 Preparing to Bake Baking pans Use size and type specified in recipe If pan is too large or small, the product will not bake properly.MaterialsMost recipes are developed for light colored metal pansGlass pans lower the cooking temperature by 25 degreesDark pans lower the oven temperature by 10 degrees
21 PAN PREPARATION GREASE AND FLOUR COOKING SPRAY LINING WITH PAPER Lightly grease a pan and dust it with flourDon’t do for microwave baking-they become sticky.COOKING SPRAYEasiest methodMay not work with all products,follow label directionsLINING WITH PAPERUse parchment paperDo not use brown paper, it contains chemicalsDo not use wax paper, it may melt
22 BAKING Conventional oven Microwave oven Uses dry heat The product browns and may develop a crispy crust.Most batters and dough's are baked this way.Microwave ovenCooks with moist heatProducts do not brown or develop a crispy crust.Food has more of a steamed texture.They are very tender and moist
23 Removing product from pan Remove some from pans immediatelySome must cool for a few minutes before taking them out.Others need to stay in the pan until completely cool.Cool on cooling racksCooling on a solid surface moisture collects causing the baked goods to become soggy