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1 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto Solid State Street Lighting March 19, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "1 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto Solid State Street Lighting March 19, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto Solid State Street Lighting March 19, 2013

2 2 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00 Re-affirmed 2010 Recommended Practice for Roadway Lighting

3 3 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Purpose of Standard Recommended practice for designing new, continuous lighting systems Roadways, adjacent bikeways, and pedestrian ways Basis for design of fixed lighting

4 4 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 RP-8-? (Being voted on again by RLC & TRC) ANSI/IES Document, if Approved will: Use only Table 3 (Luminance) Split into new Table 2 (Roadways) and Table 3 (Streets) – Illuminance may be moved to Annex Not include Cut-off Classifications Relate to TM-15 and Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance (MLO) BUG Ratings for Uplight control Rely on Veiling Luminance Ratio calculations for Glare Control Describe Limited Use of Mesopic Multipliers based on TM Hope to Publish in 2013.

5 5 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Joint IDA-IES Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance MLO IES

6 6 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Prescriptive Method Lumen density limits to address over-lighting 3 digit identification system for lighting products B rating B rating Backlight or light trespass U rating U rating Upward light or sky glow G rating G rating High angle zone or glare Limits for each lighting zone are published in TM-15-11(Luminaire Classification System for Outdoor Luminaires)

7 7 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Street Lighting Ordinance (Optional) Light Shielding and Distribution Cobra Head Street lights shall have zero uplight Glare control shall meet requirements of ANSI/IES RP-8-00 Veiling Luminance Ratio (L v ) Exemption; Decorative or architectural streetlights designed for specific district shall meet uplight control requirements U

8 Mesopic Vision The Blue Lumen Myth

9 9 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Roadway Lighting Committee (RLC) Research & Development Presentation by Dr. Ron Gibbons, VTTI to sub-committee in LA Oct 1, 2010 Mesopic Factor (S/P ratio) does not apply to foveal vision. Can be applied to peripheral vision when adaptation level is in the mesopic range Will be used only for areas primarily used by pedestrians when posted traffic speed is at or below 40 kph (25 mph) Calculation process is iterative and is performed at each calculation point. Is not a multiplier that can applied to lamp lumens or illuminance levels Use and calculation methods discussed at RLC meeting in Dallas last week May be deleted from final edition

10 10 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 IES Lighting Handbook cd/m² S/P Ratios & Mesopic Multipliers

11 11 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 What is Different about LED? Performance Considerations Standards and Testing Procedures Designing with LED Luminaires William A. Smelser, BSc., IESNA, LC

12 12 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Performance Considerations HID Light Sources Light produced by electric arc Intermittent (120 times per second) AC current Will extinguish if line voltage not maintained. One to 20 minute restrike No adjustment for operating temperature LED Light Sources Light produced by photon emission at diode junction Continuous light with DC current Instant on and restrike Life and efficacy affected by operating temperature

13 13 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Performance Testing IESNA Testing Procedures For LED Luminaires

14 14 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Performance Testing HID Luminaires Photometric testing to IES LM-31 Adjusted to published initial lamp lumens No adjustment for operating temperature No adjustment to lamp life LED Luminaires Photometric testing to IES LM-79 Absolute photometry Lamp life and efficacy are derived from data accumulated using IES LM-80 procedures based on LED junction temperatures in a luminaire and calculated using TM procedures 14

15 15 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LED Measurement Procedures 15

16 16 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LM Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid State Lighting Products Absolute photometry Type C moving mirror goneophotometers normally used for measurement of luminous intensity distribution from which total luminous flux can be obtained Spectroradiometer or colorimiter may be used to measure chromaticity co-ordinates, CCT and CRI. Spectral Power Distribution may also be determined

17 17 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LM Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid State Lighting Products Tests are performed in a chamber with no external air flow at an ambient temperature controlled to 25˚C ± 1˚C Luminaire is placed in measuring instrument and energized for a period of time until thermal equilibrium is reached Measurements are recorded and published without any correction factors Other electrical data is recorded Electronic file is prepared using LM-63 format

18 18 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LM Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources LED Light Sources are tested at a minimum of three case temperatures (Ts); 55˚C and 85˚C plus one other. Test point is defined by the manufacturer so as to correlate to and be used to calculate Junction Temperature (Tj). Ambient temperature in test instrument to be maintained at 25˚C ± 1˚C Drive current is set and remains constant throughout the test cycle Both luminous flux and chromaticity are recorded initially and at every 1,000 hours for a minimum of 6,000 or a preferred 10,000 hours. 18

19 19 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LM Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Resulting reports provide Lamp Lumen Output at the three or more junction temperatures (Tj) used in the test. 19

20 20 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM Projecting Long Term Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Approved by the IES Board in July 2011

21 21 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM-21 supplements IES LM-80 raw test data to provide LED lifetime projections that are consistent and understandable Committee included U.S. Dept. Of Energy, NIST, PNNL, Cree, Philips Lumileds, Nichia and OSRAM TM-21 provides two major functions: 1.Extrapolate a single LM-80 data set to estimate L xx LED lifetime 2.Interpolate a matched LM-80 data set (same current, 3 different temperatures) for a specific temperature, and estimate L xx LED lifetime LM-80 & TM-21 LM-80 (testing) + = TM-21 (projection) Something useful Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree

22 22 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM-21 New Concepts L xx (Yk) xx = % lumen maintenance (e.g., L 70, L 88, L 50 ) Y = duration of LM-80 test used for the projection Calculated & Reported Lifetime Calculated= what the extrapolation says Reported = Calculated, limited by LM-80 test duration (6x LM-80 for sample size 20) Lifetimes always rounded to 3 significant digits 36,288 36, , ,000 Example: L 70 (12k) Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree

23 23 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM Tables Ambient Temperatures

24 24 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM Tables 8 November, Ambient Temperatures

25 25 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 TM Curves Ambient °C 60 LED E70

26 26 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Levels of LED Standards LevelDescriptionExample Basic definitionLED chip, LED lamp, Module, Light Engine… IES RP-16 LED ComponentColour, Lumen Maintenance, Binning… ANSI C78.377A, IES LM-80, IES TM- 21, NEMA SSL-3, CSA C22.2 No FixturePhotometry, safetyIES LM-79, UL 8750, CSA C22.2 No.250 ApplicationStreets, Roadways Parking Areas IES RP-8, IES RP-20 ProgramEnergy, utilityUS EPA Energy Star, Design Lights Consortia, Korean Energy Program, etc. Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree

27 27 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Junction Temperature Relationships Relationship between Tj and Light Output or efficacy Every photometric file tested to LM-79 will potentially have a different LLD curve Relationship between Tj and expected useful life The same luminaire with changes to LED quantity and/or drive current will have different projected life to L xx or a different Lxx at projected useful life of system. – Lxx represents the appropriate Lamp Lumen Depreciation level – Optimum end of Life should be based on the expected life of the luminaire not just the LED array.

28 28 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 We can now design for the light level that is required at end of useful life rather than using estimated mean lumens.

29 29 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Designing with LED Luminaires

30 30 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LED Street Lighting Design Parameters Existing Street for conversion i.Street Parameters a)Number and width of driving lanes b)Width of any turn lanes c)Width and location of parking lanes and bicycle lanes ii.Street usage classification and Pedestrian conflict iii.Pole specifics a)Luminaire mounting height b)Pole setback from curb c)Bracket arm type and length d)Arrangement and spacing iv.Proposed cleaning cycle v.Existing luminaires

31 31 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Sample Application Existing 200W HPS Flat Glass Cobra Head 245W input CWA ballast Collector Street with Medium Pedestrian Traffic Four lanes (2 in each direction). 3.5m lane widths Staggered Poles spacing 79m 10.4m Mounting Height 2.5m setback 2.4m arms

32 32 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Sample Application Retrofit from HPS to LED No change in pole location or bracket arm Expected useful life; 20 years (88,000 hours) Cleaning every five years Clean atmospheric conditions Average night-time temperature 10°C Require 50% energy reduction

33 33 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Luminaire Dirt Depreciation LDD = 0.89

34 34 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-00; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table Average night-time ambient; 10°C Expected project life-time; 90,000 operating hours LLD = ? LLF = 0.89 x ? = ??????

35 35 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-05; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table (60LED E70) 700mA Average night-time ambient; 10°C 90,000 operating hours LLD = LLF = 0.89 x.93 =

36 36 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-05; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table (60LED E53) 525mA Average night-time ambient; 10°C 90,000 operating hours LLD = LLF = 0.89 x.96 =

37 37 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Existing 200W Flat Glass Cobra Head 245W input CWA ballast IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; 6.0 Avg./Min.: 3.5 Lv Ratio; 0.4

38 38 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 700mA) W input Electronic Driver IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; 6.0 Avg./Min.: 3.5 Lv Ratio; 0.4

39 39 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 525mA) W input Electronic Driver IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; 6.0 Avg./Min.: 3.5 Lv Ratio; 0.4

40 40 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Surge Protection All Electronic Devices Require Protection from Induced Voltage Surges

41 41 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Category A: Indoor: 6kV / 0.5kA Category B: Indoor: 6kV / 3kA Category C Low: Outdoor: 6kV / 3kA Category C High: Outdoor : 10kV/10kA C B A IEEE STD C62.41 LEDgend Combats Surge – IEEE C

42 42 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Design Integrity – System Life - Surge Protection Surge Protection Device designed to meet ANSI/IEEE C Category C High Specifically designed for Electronic control gear including LED Drivers Designed to fail off. Disconnects driver from mains. To continue to protect luminaire electronics until SPD is replaced. Warns that SPD has failed and needs to be replaced

43 43 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Basic LED Luminaire Specification Colour Temperature Supply Voltage Photocontrol receptacle if required Paint finish colour if required Must be located on existing bracket arms and pole locations Internal field level adjustment Must meet RP-8 Table 3 lighting requirements for street classifications LM-79 photometry from independent NVLAP approved lab TM-21 LLD data Vibration test data Surge protection data Warranty

44 44 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Optional LED Luminaire Requirements Dimming, Monitoring, Metering Dimmable Driver Part-Night Dimming Constant Light Output Dimming Wireless Monitoring Optional Metering

45 45 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 28 January, 2013 Discussion


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