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A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto

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Presentation on theme: "A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brighter Tomorrow LED Streetlighting in Toronto
Solid State Street Lighting March 19, 2013 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

2 ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00 Re-affirmed 2010
Recommended Practice for Roadway Lighting 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 2

3 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Purpose of Standard Recommended practice for designing new, continuous lighting systems Roadways, adjacent bikeways, and pedestrian ways Basis for design of fixed lighting 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 3

4 RP-8-? (Being voted on again by RLC & TRC)
ANSI/IES Document, if Approved will: Use only Table 3 (Luminance) Split into new Table 2 (Roadways) and Table 3 (Streets) Illuminance may be moved to Annex Not include Cut-off Classifications Relate to TM-15 and Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance (MLO) BUG Ratings for Uplight control Rely on Veiling Luminance Ratio calculations for Glare Control Describe Limited Use of Mesopic Multipliers based on TM-12-12 Hope to Publish in 2013. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

5 Joint IDA-IES Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance
MLO Joint IDA-IES Model Outdoor Lighting Ordinance IES 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

6 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
M L O Prescriptive Method Lumen density limits to address over-lighting 3 digit identification system for lighting products “B rating” Backlight or “light trespass” “U rating” Upward light or “sky glow” “G rating” High angle zone or “glare” Limits for each lighting zone are published in TM-15-11(Luminaire Classification System for Outdoor Luminaires) In the prescriptive method, there are two basic requirements. First, limits are defined to prevent over lighting a site. This is based on a lumen density, or lumens per square foot, limit based on the lighting zone. So a site in zone 3 will be allowed more lumens per square foot than a site in zone 1 – corresponding to the need for higher light levels associated with higher activity and security requirements in zone 3. The second requirement describes the optical requirements for luminaires to be installed on the site. This is accomplished with a new, 3 digit system setting limits for the optical distribution. The 3 digit system establishes zonal lumen limits for backlight – addressing the potential for light trespass; uplight – addressing the potential for sky glow; and “glare” or high angle brightness. This system corresponds to the TM-15 LCS model. Currently, the MLO task group is evaluating limits for the “BUG” ratings for each lighting zone and the intent is that these limits will be published in a supplement to TM-15 once they are approved. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 6

7 Street Lighting Ordinance (Optional)
M L O Light Shielding and Distribution Cobra Head Street lights shall have zero uplight Glare control shall meet requirements of ANSI/IES RP-8-00 Veiling Luminance Ratio (Lv) Exemption; Decorative or architectural streetlights designed for specific district shall meet uplight control requirements “U” The MLO recognizes that there are some specialized lighting applications that will have different requirements. Therefore the MLO defines exemptions – lighting applications that are so specialized that they do not have specific limitations. Exemptions also include applications that require a different analysis of limitations or different jurisdiction of enforcement from those included in this version of the MLO. In this version of the MLO, roadway lighting is exempted but IDA and IESNA intend to initiate a model ordinance specific to roadway lighting. Other exemptions include public monuments, signs, low voltage lighting in zones 2-4 and temporary or seasonal lighting. Some applications will require an exception from the specific MLO limitations and are addressed through a special use permit by the local municipality. These applications often include lighting of historical monuments, industrial sites, architecture or art work. These are situations that typically cannot meet the MLO requirements but are supported by community interests. This may include bridge lighting, sports lighting, industrial docks or lighting highly recognized architectural features. The special permit process would require the lighting designer to justify that the design has included an analysis of the impacts of the lighting relative to community interests. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 7

8 Mesopic Vision The Blue Lumen Myth

9 Roadway Lighting Committee (RLC) Research & Development
Presentation by Dr. Ron Gibbons, VTTI to sub-committee in LA Oct 1, 2010 Mesopic Factor (S/P ratio) does not apply to foveal vision. Can be applied to peripheral vision when adaptation level is in the mesopic range Will be used only for areas primarily used by pedestrians when posted traffic speed is at or below 40 kph (25 mph) Calculation process is iterative and is performed at each calculation point. Is not a multiplier that can applied to lamp lumens or illuminance levels Use and calculation methods discussed at RLC meeting in Dallas last week May be deleted from final edition 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

10 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
IES Lighting Handbook 2011 S/P Ratios & Mesopic Multipliers 0.3 cd/m² 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

11 What is Different about LED?
Performance Considerations Standards and Testing Procedures Designing with LED Luminaires 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC William A. Smelser, BSc., IESNA, LC

12 Performance Considerations
HID Light Sources Light produced by electric arc Intermittent (120 times per second) AC current Will extinguish if line voltage not maintained. One to 20 minute restrike No adjustment for operating temperature LED Light Sources Light produced by photon emission at diode junction Continuous light with DC current Instant on and restrike Life and efficacy affected by operating temperature 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

13 IESNA Testing Procedures For LED Luminaires
Performance Testing IESNA Testing Procedures For LED Luminaires 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

14 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Performance Testing HID Luminaires Photometric testing to IES LM-31 Adjusted to published initial lamp lumens No adjustment for operating temperature No adjustment to lamp life LED Luminaires Photometric testing to IES LM-79 Absolute photometry Lamp life and efficacy are derived from data accumulated using IES LM-80 procedures based on LED junction temperatures in a luminaire and calculated using TM procedures 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 14

15 LED Measurement Procedures
28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 15

16 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LM-79-08 Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid State Lighting Products Absolute photometry Type C moving mirror goneophotometers normally used for measurement of luminous intensity distribution from which total luminous flux can be obtained Spectroradiometer or colorimiter may be used to measure chromaticity co-ordinates, CCT and CRI. Spectral Power Distribution may also be determined 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

17 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LM-79-08 Electrical and Photometric Measurements of Solid State Lighting Products Tests are performed in a chamber with no external air flow at an ambient temperature controlled to 25˚C ± 1˚C Luminaire is placed in measuring instrument and energized for a period of time until thermal equilibrium is reached Measurements are recorded and published without any correction factors Other electrical data is recorded Electronic file is prepared using LM-63 format 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

18 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LM-80-08 Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources LED Light Sources are tested at a minimum of three case temperatures (Ts); 55˚C and 85˚C plus one other. Test point is defined by the manufacturer so as to correlate to and be used to calculate Junction Temperature (Tj). Ambient temperature in test instrument to be maintained at 25˚C ± 1˚C Drive current is set and remains constant throughout the test cycle Both luminous flux and chromaticity are recorded initially and at every 1,000 hours for a minimum of 6,000 or a preferred 10,000 hours. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 18

19 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LM-80-08 Measuring Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Resulting reports provide Lamp Lumen Output at the three or more junction temperatures (Tj) used in the test. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 19

20 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
TM-21-11 Projecting Long Term Lumen Maintenance of LED Light Sources Approved by the IES Board in July 2011 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

21 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LM-80 & TM-21 LM-80 (testing) = TM-21 (projection) Something useful TM-21 supplements IES LM-80 raw test data to provide LED lifetime projections that are consistent and understandable Committee included U.S. Dept. Of Energy, NIST, PNNL, Cree, Philips Lumileds, Nichia and OSRAM TM-21 provides two major functions: Extrapolate a single LM-80 data set to estimate Lxx LED lifetime Interpolate a matched LM-80 data set (same current, 3 different temperatures) for a specific temperature, and estimate Lxx LED lifetime 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree 21

22 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
TM-21 New Concepts Example: L70(12k) Lxx(Yk) xx = % lumen maintenance (e.g., L70, L88 , L50) Y = duration of LM-80 test used for the projection Calculated & Reported Lifetime Calculated = what the extrapolation says Reported = Calculated, limited by LM-80 test duration (6x LM-80 for sample size ≥ 20) Lifetimes always rounded to 3 significant digits 36,288  36,300 215,145  215,000 Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

23 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
TM Tables Ambient Temperatures 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

24 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
TM Tables Ambient Temperatures 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC 8 November, 2011 24

25 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
TM Curves 60 LED E70 Ambient °C 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

26 Levels of LED Standards
Description Example Basic definition LED chip, LED lamp, Module, Light Engine… IES RP-16 LED Component Colour, Lumen Maintenance, Binning… ANSI C78.377A, IES LM-80, IES TM-21, NEMA SSL-3, CSA C22.2 No Fixture Photometry, safety IES LM-79, UL 8750, CSA C22.2 No.250 Application Streets, Roadways Parking Areas IES RP-8, IES RP-20 Program Energy, utility US EPA Energy Star, Design Lights Consortia, Korean Energy Program, etc. Courtesy; Mark McClear, Cree 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

27 Junction Temperature Relationships
Relationship between Tj and Light Output or efficacy Every photometric file tested to LM-79 will potentially have a different LLD curve Relationship between Tj and expected useful life The same luminaire with changes to LED quantity and/or drive current will have different projected life to Lxx or a different Lxx at projected useful life of system. Lxx represents the appropriate Lamp Lumen Depreciation level Optimum end of Life should be based on the expected life of the luminaire not just the LED array. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

28 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
We can now design for the light level that is required at end of useful life rather than using estimated mean lumens. 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

29 Designing with LED Luminaires
28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

30 LED Street Lighting Design Parameters
Existing Street for conversion Street Parameters Number and width of driving lanes Width of any turn lanes Width and location of parking lanes and bicycle lanes Street usage classification and Pedestrian conflict Pole specifics Luminaire mounting height Pole setback from curb Bracket arm type and length Arrangement and spacing Proposed cleaning cycle Existing luminaires 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

31 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Sample Application Existing 200W HPS Flat Glass Cobra Head 245W input CWA ballast Collector Street with Medium Pedestrian Traffic Four lanes (2 in each direction). 3.5m lane widths Staggered Poles spacing 79m 10.4m Mounting Height 2.5m setback 2.4m arms 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

32 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Sample Application Retrofit from HPS to LED No change in pole location or bracket arm Expected useful life; 20 years (88,000 hours) Cleaning every five years Clean atmospheric conditions Average night-time temperature 10°C Require ≥ 50% energy reduction 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

33 Luminaire Dirt Depreciation
LDD = 0.89 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

34 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-00; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table Average night-time ambient; 10°C Expected project life-time; 90,000 operating hours LLD = ? LLF = 0.89 x ? = ?????? 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

35 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-05; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table (60LED E70) 700mA Average night-time ambient; 10°C 90,000 operating hours LLD = LLF = 0.89 x .93 = .83 .93 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

36 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LLF = LDD X LLD LDD from IES RP-8-05; 5-year cleaning, Clean ambient LDD = 0.89 LLD from specific TM table (60LED E53) 525mA Average night-time ambient; 10°C 90,000 operating hours LLD = LLF = 0.89 x .96 = .85 .96 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

37 Existing 200W Flat Glass Cobra Head
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; ≤ 6.0 Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5 Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4 245W input CWA ballast 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

38 LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 700mA)
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; ≤ 6.0 Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5 Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4 144.5 W input Electronic Driver 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

39 LED Luminaire #1 (60 LED 525mA)
IES RP-8-05 RECOMMENDATION Avg. Maintained; ≥ 0.6 cd/m² Max./Min; ≤ 6.0 Avg./Min.: ≤ 3.5 Lv Ratio; ≤ 0.4 105.7 W input Electronic Driver 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

40 All Electronic Devices Require Protection from Induced Voltage Surges
Surge Protection All Electronic Devices Require Protection from Induced Voltage Surges 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

41 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
LEDgend Combats Surge – IEEE C Category A: Indoor: 6kV / 0.5kA Category B: Indoor: 6kV / 3kA Category C Low: Outdoor: 6kV / 3kA Category C High: Outdoor : 10kV/10kA C B A IEEE STD C62.41 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

42 Design Integrity – System Life - Surge Protection
Surge Protection Device designed to meet ANSI/IEEE C Category C High Specifically designed for Electronic control gear including LED Drivers Designed to fail “off”. Disconnects driver from mains. To continue to protect luminaire electronics until SPD is replaced. Warns that SPD has failed and needs to be replaced 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

43 Basic LED Luminaire Specification
Colour Temperature Supply Voltage Photocontrol receptacle if required Paint finish colour if required Must be located on existing bracket arms and pole locations Internal field level adjustment Must meet RP-8 Table 3 lighting requirements for street classifications LM-79 photometry from independent NVLAP approved lab TM-21 LLD data Vibration test data Surge protection data Warranty 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

44 Optional LED Luminaire Requirements
Dimming, Monitoring, Metering Dimmable Driver Part-Night Dimming Constant Light Output Dimming Wireless Monitoring Optional Metering 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC

45 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC
Discussion 28 January, 2013 William A. Smelser, BSc, IESNA, LC


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