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Teaching Democratization by being democratic Some ideas on teaching methods.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Democratization by being democratic Some ideas on teaching methods."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Democratization by being democratic Some ideas on teaching methods

2 Some basic facts about learning Students „learn by doing“, meaning the more they are engaged in learning activities, the greater the outcome; learning as a way of interacting Students „create knowledge“, it is not imposed or transmitted by direct instruction  meaning is personal (Biggs 2001) Two approaches to learning: surface approach of rote learning and deep approach of understanding concepts (Marton/Säljö 1976)

3 Democracy in the classroom the students... shape the process of teaching and learning themselves (prepare questions for class, organise working groups, presentations etc.) Discuss, ask and develop ideas freely and on an equal basis the teacher... serves as manager and facilitator of knowledge rather than as presenter and transmitter of information Participation EqualityResponsibility

4 Reality Students come from a learning background at school that doesn‘t support independent thinking, discussion culture or equality Assessment methods support a surface approach to learning and short-term memorizing of facts Under-graduate teaching is predominantly lecture based

5 The Lecture Pro It accommodates large fluctuations in student numbers; It can provide a wide range of information in a parti- cular field/discipline in relatively short time; It can expose students to the most recent developments of the discipline better that any singular article does;  At best it combines research and teaching Con It is frontal and hierarchically structured, lecturer based; It supports passivity and reduces students to specta- tors that can at most request clarifications; It doesn‘t inspire students to question, to change attitude or undertake own research;  It is ineffective in stimulating higher-order thinking

6 The large lecture class = impersonal atmosphere, no inter-action or small group discussion possible = low student participation and activity = insufficient learning outcome => A non-democratic way of teaching

7 Democratize the large lecture class? Some strategies: Create environment for active participation in class Strengthen the feeling of recognition, equality and responsibility Provide ways of participation in assessment process

8 Active participation in class ask students to summarize the reading before getting started interrupt lecture frequently for 5 minutes to let them write down thoughts about the lecture content so far let students develop questions on the reading and send them in before lecture to be discussed in class encourage speaking up and ask questions during the lecture by interrupting (give them time to think!) interrupt lecture for short “games” depending on the material of the class (Pro-Con’s, spontaneous quizzing)

9 Recognition, equality, responsibility make crystal clear what the requirements of the course are and how to get credit points make attendance voluntary, but make clear that active participation in class counts for final grade walk along the aisle during the lecture, make eye contact

10 Participation in assessment process provide lecture slides have several exams over the semester let students suggest exam questions make regular evaluations of the lecture, allow for criticism Be open about teaching methods – discuss strategies for active learning

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