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Chapter 9: The World of Polymers and Plastics

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The World of Polymers and Plastics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: The World of Polymers and Plastics
Why is plastic so important? What happens to recycled plastics and polymers? Are there downsides to recycling?

2 What do you think of when you hear the word “plastic”?
Rayon Nylon Lycra polyurethane Teflon Styrofoam Saran

3 Plastics are polymers. What is a polymer?
Polymers are large molecules made up of long chains of atoms covalently bonded together. Monomers (from mono meaning “one” and meros meaning “unit”) are the small molecules used to synthesize the polymeric chain, like a strand of paper clips. 9.2

4 Polymers have been with us since the beginning of time.
Natural polymers include such things as cellulose, starch, tar and shellac, tortoise shell and horns, as well as tree saps that produce amber and latex. These polymers were processed with heat and pressure into useful articles like hair ornaments and jewelry. Natural polymers began to be chemically modified during the 1800s to produce many materials. The most famous of these were vulcanized rubber, cotton, and celluloid. The first semi-synthetic polymer produced was Bakelite in 1909 and was soon followed by the first synthetic fiber, rayon, which was developed in 1911. 9.2

5 The polymers (poly means “many”) can be formed from the same type of monomer or from a combination of monomers: A representation of a monomer. A representation of a polymer made of one monomer. A representation of a polymer made of two different monomers. 9.3

6 Polymers are referred to as macromolecules because they involve thousands of atoms, and their molecular masses can reach over a million. Many common classes of polymers are composed of hydrocarbons. Carbon makes up the backbone of the molecule and hydrogen atoms are bonded to the carbon atoms. Below is a diagram of polyethylene, the simplest polymer structure. polyethylene Other examples of polymers that contain only carbon and hydrogen include polypropylene, polybutylene, and polystyrene. 9.3

7 As additional ethylene molecules join, the chain grows:
In addition polymers, the monomers simply add to the growing polymer chain in such a way that the product contains all the atoms of the starting material. ethylene monomer addition product As additional ethylene molecules join, the chain grows: No other products are formed, and no atoms are eliminated. 9.3

8 The overall process can be represented as:
If one of the H atoms on ethylene is replaced with a Cl atom, the result is the formation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). 9.3

9 Formation of Polyethylene (PE): Mechanism
A free-radical process, initiated by a catalyst 9.3

10 Stretching or “necking” a plastic bag
Represents the molecular rearrangement as PE is stretched Pulling on a piece of PE Dispersion forces (intermolecular forces) are attractions between molecules in the polymer that hold the material together 9.4

11 Branching alters the physical properties of PE
Straight chain Branched chain Low density PE (LDPE) – soft, stretchy, not too strong High density PE (HDPE) – greater rigidity, strength, higher mp 9.4

12 There are over 60,000 synthetic polymers today
There are over 60,000 synthetic polymers today. Here are 3 of the most common polymers known collectively as the “Big Six”: 9.5

13 Three more polymers that make up the “Big Six”
How do we make sense of these representations? What makes one polymer different from another? 9.5

14 Many different arrangements are possible when a polymer forms
from polyvinylchloride (PVC) monomers How do these different arrangements affect the properties of the polymer? 9.5

15 styrene monomer The polystyrene foam used for Styrofoam cups is made by the same addition process. 9.5

16 One way to differentiate between polymers is to look at their functional groups - distinctive arrangements of atoms that impart characteristic chemical properties to the molecules that contain them. 9.6

17 Ester linkages highlighted in blue
Condensation Polymers Formation of PET Examples Natural: starch, wool, silk, proteins Synthetic: nylon, kevlar, and ABS Ester linkages highlighted in blue 9.6

18 Proteins are long chains of amino acids joined
by condensation polymerization Peptide Bond- covalent bond that forms between –COOH group of one amino acid and the -NH2 group of the next 9.7

19 Nylon is another common example of a condensation polymer

20 Composition of municipal solid waste:
100 billion pounds of plastic is produced in the U.S. each year- much of this ends up in landfills. 9.9

21 Recycling plastics: Even though we are recycling more plastic that ever in the U.S. We recycle less plastic by percentage (1 in 5 plastic soda bottles in 2010 vs. 1 in 3 in 1995). 9.9

22 Recycling Involves a Never-Ending Loop:

23 Plastics from Renewable Materials:
Consumer products made from polylactic acid (PLA) 9.10

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