Presentation on theme: "The importance of psychology in sports performance has increased appreciably over the past few decades. The ability of the mind to generate thought patterns,"— Presentation transcript:
The importance of psychology in sports performance has increased appreciably over the past few decades. The ability of the mind to generate thought patterns, influence emotions, stimulate or diminish arousal and create vivid images of a desired action is now better understood and is changing the way that many of us approach our sporting activities. Research suggests that there is significant potential to improve performance through mental training. The understanding of specific psychological influences such as motivation, interest, concentration and anxiety management is becoming increasingly important as these influences can significantly enhance or inhibit performance depending on the way they are managed.
Motivation Defined: Motivation is an internal state that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving a particular goal.
Motivation cont. Negative Motivation Is characterised by an improvement in performance out of fear of the consequences of not performing to expectations. Inspiring an athlete to perform well because they expect to be punished if they fail may work on occasions, but has serious shortfalls. While some individuals may respond well to negative motivation initially, the long term effect can be the destruction of confidence, initiative and belief in oneself – the reverse of what motivation is supposed to achieve.
Below is a quote from a high school gridiron player who has been affected by negative motivation “Going into high school I was a standout athlete with high confidence but after my freshman year I started to lose interest. It just wasn’t fun anymore. I hated practice because I was always worrying about messing up and being embarrassed by the coach. In games I worried about what he would do or say if I made a mistake so I became less aggressive. When I thought I did something right he thought it was wrong, and when I tried to work hard and gain his approval it was never good enough. It got to the point where I was making up excuses to get out of practice, and I even hoped I would be benched so I didn’t have to worry anymore. I knew the coach was tough, and I have no problems doing extra work or having someone push me to do better. But when he gets in my face, calls me out, embarrasses me in front of the team, and has a problem with me every day it makes me question why I still play. I use to play to learn, compete, be with friends, and have fun. Now I can’t wait for the season to be over, and practice is always the worst part of my day. I don’t tell anyone how it affects my motivation and confidence because it’s football, and everyone complains about the coach. You just have to quit or accept it.”
Positive Motivation Positive motivation occurs when an athlete performs because they have received rewards for similar actions in the past and they realise that continuing to perform as required results in additional rewards. Positive motivation relies on continual self-reinforcement and/or reinforcement by others such as the coach, family, friends, spectator and the media. There are many ways in which motivation can be given or maintained such as: providing incentives/rewards e.g. money, gifts developing personal progress charts e.g. how many runs/goals scored, tackles made reinforcement (support/praise) from others e.g. family, friends, media recognising achievements e.g. MVP, newsletters/paper articles, noticeboards handling mistakes constructively e.g. positive constructive criticism from a coach developing challenges for the athlete e.g. fitness challenges, skill challenges.
Intrinsic Motivation This form refers to motivation that comes from within. It is a self-propelling force that encourages athletes to achieve because they have an interest in the task or activity that they enjoy learning and performing the movements.
Extrinsic Motivation This occurs when the individual’s internal state (motivation levels) is modified by sources originating from outside the person. Individuals can be motivated by parents, coaches prizes and rewards for effort and performance. This type of motivation is not very effective over a sustained period of time because it is not a fulfilling way to achieve the desired performance.