Presentation on theme: "Lung Cancer By Ella Mason.. Causes of Lung Cancer. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking. Smoking causes cancer because there is substances within."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of Lung Cancer. The main cause of lung cancer is smoking. Smoking causes cancer because there is substances within tobacco that are known to cause Cancer. These substances are known as carcinogens (which means "cancer-causing agents"), and it is these carcinogens that cause the actual damage to the cells in the lungs. A cell that is damaged may become cancerous over a period of time. One cannot predict which smoker is at greater risk of developing lung cancer. In general, though, a smoker's chances of developing cancer depends on: The age that the person began smoking; How long the person has smoked; How many cigarettes per day the person smokes; Passive smoking; breathing in someone else's smoke; may also increase the risk for developing lung cancer. To more causes
Causes of Lung Cancer There are other causes of lung cancer not related to smoking. People who smoke and who also are exposed to these other causes have an even higher risk for lung cancer. These other causes include: Exposure to cancer-causing agents through a person's job. This includes exposure to asbestos, either in the mining or construction industries. Inhaled asbestos particles may remain in the lungs, damaging lung cells. It also includes exposure to certain industrial substances like coal products, vinyl chloride, nickel chromate, arsenic, and exposure to some organic chemicals like chloromethyl ethers. Exposure to radiation, either through one's occupation or for medical reasons, such as repeated x-rays, though this is quite uncommon. Radon gas, which occurs naturally in rocks and soil in certain areas, may cause lung damage and may eventually result in lung cancer if it seeps into your home. The presence of radon in the home can be measured using an inexpensive kit that can be purchased at department or hardware stores. Research suggests that some people are more at risk for developing cancer if their body is not as easily able to deal with certain cancer- causing chemicals. This inability to neutralize cancer-causing chemicals is believed to be inherited.Researchers also believe that in some people, when they come into contact with certain cancer-causing agents, their immune system, instead of neutralizing them, will actually make these agents more aggressive within the body. Such people, therefore, would be more sensitive to tobacco smoke and chemicals known to cause cancer.
Symptoms of Lung Cancer. General symptoms of lung cancer. ･ Having a cough most of the time ･ A change in a cough you have had for a long time ･ Being short of breath ･ Coughing up phlegm (sputum) with signs of blood in it ･ An ache or pain when breathing or coughing ･ Loss of appetite ･ Fatigue ･ Losing weight Less common symptoms of lung cancer. ･ A hoarse voice. ･ Difficulty swallowing. ･ Changes in the shape of your fingers and nails called finger clubbing. ･ Swelling of the face caused by a blockage of a main blood vessel from the head (SVCO). ･ Swelling in the neck caused by enlarged lymph nodes. ･ Pain or discomfort under your ribs on your right side (from the liver). ･ Shortness of breath caused by fluid around the lungs (called pleural effusion).
Cures of this disease. Surgery can cure lung cancer, but only one in five patients are suitable for this treatment. If the tumour has not spread outside the chest and does not involve vital structures such as the liver, then surgical removal may be possible, but only if the patient does not also have severe bronchitis, heart disease or other illnesses. These additional complications put too great a strain on the patient for them to be able to stand surgery. Small cell lung cancer is treated with chemotherapy. This is given either by an oncologist (a specialist in cancer treatment) or sometimes by a physician in chest diseases with special experience in chemotherapy. It is given in courses which means that the patient has to stay in hospital for about 48 hours approximately every three weeks. Popular misconceptions about chemotherapy are common and there is often concern about its perceived difficulties and usefulness. However, there is no doubt that chemotherapy is effective and that it both prolongs and improves the quality of survival in small cell lung cancer. ContinuingContinuing
More cures for this disease. The number of courses required will depend on how well the individual patient responds.Chemotherapy does have side effects, particularly nausea, vomiting and hair loss. However there are very good drugs to control these side effects. Hair always grows again about three months after the chemotherapy courses have finished. There is scope for improving the results of chemotherapy and many research trials are going on. Patients who are asked for their consent to take part in a trial should not be frightened. Hundreds of patients take part in trials to detect any benefit between one treatment regime and another. This research must be done if cancer chemotherapy can continue to improve. Non-small cell cancer may be treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy (as part of a research trial), or with supportive care. Radiotherapy is either 'radical' or 'palliative'. Radical is used in selected patients with localised tumors who are inoperable, and involves using high doses of radiation.Palliative radiotherapy is widely used. It involves using lower doses of radiation - often in just one or two doses. It is very good for relieving symptoms, such as blood in the sputum (haemoptysis), bone pain, and also for helping obstruction to the airway or large veins in the chest.