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A&P 1 Directional Terminology.

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Presentation on theme: "A&P 1 Directional Terminology."— Presentation transcript:

1 A&P 1 Directional Terminology

2 Standard anatomical body position:
Anatomical Position Standard anatomical body position: Body erect Feet slightly apart Palms facing forward

3 Table 1.1

4 Table 1.1

5 Table 1.1

6 Table 1.1

7 Table 1.1

8 Two major divisions of body:
Regional Terms Two major divisions of body: Axial Head, neck, and trunk Appendicular Limbs Regional terms designate specific areas

9 Cephalic Upper limb Frontal Acromial Orbital Brachial (arm) Nasal
Antecubital Oral Antebrachial (forearm) Mental Cervical Carpal (wrist) Manus (hand) Thoracic Palmar Axillary Pollex Mammary Digital Sternal Abdominal Lower limb Umbilical Coxal (hip) Pelvic Femoral (thigh) Inguinal (groin) Patellar Crural (leg) Pubic (genital) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Tarsal (ankle) Thorax Metatarsal Abdomen Digital Back (Dorsum) Hallux (a) Anterior/Ventral Figure 1.7a

10 Upper limb Cephalic Acromial Otic Brachial (arm) Occipital (back
of head) Olecranal Antebrachial (forearm) Cervical Back (dorsal) Manus (hand) Scapular Metacarpal Vertebral Digital Lumbar Lower limb Sacral Femoral (thigh) Gluteal Popliteal Perineal (between anus and external genitalia) Sural (calf) Fibular or peroneal Pedal (foot) Thorax Abdomen Back (Dorsum) Calcaneal Plantar (b) Posterior/Dorsal Figure 1.7b

11 Body Planes Plane: Flat surface along which body or structure is cut for anatomical study

12 Midsagittal (median) plane
Body Planes Sagittal plane Divides body vertically into right and left parts Produces a sagittal section Midsagittal (median) plane Lies on midline Parasagittal plane Not on midline

13 Frontal (coronal) plane
Body Planes Frontal (coronal) plane Divides body vertically into anterior and posterior parts Transverse (horizontal) plane Divides body horizontally into superior and inferior parts Produces a cross section Oblique section Cuts made diagonally

14 Median (midsagittal) plane
Frontal plane Median (midsagittal) plane Transverse plane (a) Frontal section (through torso) (b) Transverse section (through torso, inferior view) (c) Median section (midsagittal) Pancreas Aorta Spleen Left and right lungs Liver Heart Spleen Liver Spinal cord Rectum Intestines Body wall Stomach Arm Vertebral column Subcutaneous fat layer Figure 1.8

15 Anatomical Variability
Over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions, but: Nerves or blood vessels may be somewhat out of place Small muscles may be missing

16 Body Cavities Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs Cranial cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominopelvic cavity

17 Body Cavities

18 Cranial Cavity and Vertebral Canal
Formed by the cranial bones Protects the brain Vertebral canal Formed by bones of vertebral column Contains the spinal cord Meninges Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal .

19 Also called the chest cavity Formed by
Thoracic Cavity Also called the chest cavity Formed by Ribs Muscles of the chest Sternum (breastbone) Vertebral column (thoracic portion)

20 Within the thoracic cavity
Pericardial cavity Fluid-filled space that surround the heart Pleural cavity Two fluid-filled spaces that that surround each lung Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

21 Thoracic Cavity Mediastinum Central part of the thoracic cavity
Between lungs Extending from the sternum to the vertebral column First rib to the diaphragm Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity .

22 Abdominopelvic Cavity
Extends from the diaphragm to the groin Encircled by the abdominal wall and bones and muscles of the pelvis Divided into two portions: Abdominal cavity Stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small and large intestines Pelvic cavity Urinary bladder, internal organs of reproductive system, and portions of the large intestine .

23 Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes
Viscera Organs of the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities Serous membrane is a thin slippery membrane that covers the viscera Parts of the serous membrane: Parietal layer Lines the wall of the cavities Visceral layer Covers the viscera within the cavities

24 Thoracic and Abdominal Cavity Membranes
Pleura Serous membrane of the pleural cavities Visceral pleura clings to surface of lungs Parietal pleura lines the chest wall Pericardium Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium covers the heart Parietal pericardium lines the chest wall Peritoneum Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity Visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal cavity Parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall .

25 (comparable to parietal serosa)
Outer balloon wall (comparable to parietal serosa) Air (comparable to serous cavity) Inner balloon wall (comparable to visceral serosa) Heart Parietal pericardium Pericardial space with serous fluid Visceral pericardium (b) The serosae associated with the heart. Figure 1.10a-b

26 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Vertical and horizontal lines pass through the umbilicus Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrants (LLQ) .

27 Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Left upper quadrant (LUQ) Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Left lower quadrant (LLQ) Figure 1.11

28 Abdominopelvic Regions
Used to describe the location of abdominal and pelvic organs Tic-Tac-Toe grid Two horizontal and two vertical lines partition the cavity .

29 .

30 Abdominopelvic Regions
Liver Diaphragm Right hypochondriac region Left hypochondriac region Epigastric region Gallbladder Stomach Right lumbar region Left lumbar region Ascending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Umbilical region Small intestine Descending colon of large intestine Cecum Right iliac (inguinal) region Hypogastric (pubic) region Left iliac (inguinal) region Initial part of sigmoid colon Appendix Urinary bladder (a) Nine regions delineated by four planes (b) Anterior view of the nine regions showing the superficial organs Figure 1.12

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