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United States History I Chapter 10-4: “Causes of the American Civil War” Standards 1.2-1.8.

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Presentation on theme: "United States History I Chapter 10-4: “Causes of the American Civil War” Standards 1.2-1.8."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States History I Chapter 10-4: “Causes of the American Civil War” Standards 1.2-1.8

2 Sectionalism and the Roots of Conflict During the 1800’s, the northern and southern “sections” of the United States began to grow apart socially and economically During the 1800’s, the northern and southern “sections” of the United States began to grow apart socially and economically North: Industry North: Industry South: Cash Crops: Cotton/Tobacco South: Cash Crops: Cotton/Tobacco

3 The Missouri Compromise: 1820 60,000 People needed in area/territory before it can apply for statehood 60,000 People needed in area/territory before it can apply for statehood 1820: 11 Slave and 11 Free States 1820: 11 Slave and 11 Free States Missouri applied for statehood Missouri applied for statehood –Balance of power would be offset one way or the other. Will Missouri be slave or free? –Who cares? Why would this be important for political power? Discussion

4 Missouri Compromise: 1820 *Maine also applied for statehood at the same time: PROBLEM SOLVED… for now *Maine also applied for statehood at the same time: PROBLEM SOLVED… for now See map of U.S. Maine vs. Missouri See map of U.S. Maine vs. Missouri Compromise: Giving a little of something in order to get a little bit of something you want Compromise: Giving a little of something in order to get a little bit of something you want Missouri Compromise: Maine is admitted as a free state while Missouri enters the UNION as a slave state: State Count = 12-12 Missouri Compromise: Maine is admitted as a free state while Missouri enters the UNION as a slave state: State Count = 12-12 Future? 36-30 Line Established: Anything North would be Free and Everything South would be slave Future? 36-30 Line Established: Anything North would be Free and Everything South would be slave

5 Missouri Compromise Map: 1820

6 California Gold Rush: 1849 1848: Gold is found in the mountains of California 1848: Gold is found in the mountains of California 1849: People RUSH out to California in order to find gold (49ers’) Sound Familiar? 1849: People RUSH out to California in order to find gold (49ers’) Sound Familiar? California all of sudden had enough people to become a state. Most people wanted California to become a free state! California all of sudden had enough people to become a state. Most people wanted California to become a free state! Slave states become angry and threaten to leave the Union!! Slave states become angry and threaten to leave the Union!!

7 Compromise of 1850 After nine months of heated debate… After nine months of heated debate… Henry Clay: “The Great Compromiser” suggests… Henry Clay: “The Great Compromiser” suggests… –1. California be allowed to enter Union as a free state: South angry… –2. Territories of Utah and New Mexico established w/o restrictions on slavery: North angry –3. Slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C. –4. Strict Fugitive Slave Law was passed: Said that fugitive slaves HAD to be reported to the authorities. So…If you lived in Indiana and knew that a fugitive slave was around and did not report it, you were breaking the law! Northerners very angry at this law!! –13 Free to 12 Slave States

8 Uncle Tom’s Cabin: 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe: Abolitionist who lived in Cincinnati, Ohio. Was a contemporary of Frederick Douglas. Harriet Beecher Stowe: Abolitionist who lived in Cincinnati, Ohio. Was a contemporary of Frederick Douglas. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Book that exposed slavery for what it really was and infuriated slave owners in the south. Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Book that exposed slavery for what it really was and infuriated slave owners in the south. Eliza and the Horrors of Slavery Eliza and the Horrors of Slavery *What does it mean when someone is referred to as an Uncle Tom? *What does it mean when someone is referred to as an Uncle Tom?

9 The Mighty Ohio River

10 Kansas-Nebraska Act: 1854 Stephen Douglas: Senator IL Stephen Douglas: Senator IL Wanted to build a transcontinental RR through Chicago (Economics) Wanted to build a transcontinental RR through Chicago (Economics) Two new territories created: Kansas and Nebraska: Both ABOVE the 36-30 Line! Two new territories created: Kansas and Nebraska: Both ABOVE the 36-30 Line! Kansas-Nebraska Act: Douglas wanted to scrap the 36- 30 line and leave the fate of all future states up to POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY: Let the people choose Kansas-Nebraska Act: Douglas wanted to scrap the 36- 30 line and leave the fate of all future states up to POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY: Let the people choose 1854: A group of northern politicians become so angry that they form a new political party called the Republican Party 1854: A group of northern politicians become so angry that they form a new political party called the Republican Party

11 Kansas Nebraska Act: 1854

12 Bleeding Kansas: 1854-1857 Two groups “moved” into Kansas in an attempt to sway the vote for a constitution that met their needs Two groups “moved” into Kansas in an attempt to sway the vote for a constitution that met their needs Anti-Slavery: Lawrence Anti-Slavery: Lawrence Pro-Slavery: Lecompton Pro-Slavery: Lecompton *After some Pro-Slavery supporters attacked and killed some abolitionists. John Brown and his sons killed at least five Pro-Slavery people. *After some Pro-Slavery supporters attacked and killed some abolitionists. John Brown and his sons killed at least five Pro-Slavery people. *Open fighting broke out and lasted a few years. *Open fighting broke out and lasted a few years.

13 Dred Scott Case: 1857 Background: Dred Scott was a slave who was owned by a slave owner in Missouri. His owner was in the army and spent time in Wisconsin and Illinois. When his owner died, the state of Missouri tried to sell Dred Scott as property Background: Dred Scott was a slave who was owned by a slave owner in Missouri. His owner was in the army and spent time in Wisconsin and Illinois. When his owner died, the state of Missouri tried to sell Dred Scott as property Case: Dred Scott sued for his freedom and lost because he was “property” Case: Dred Scott sued for his freedom and lost because he was “property” -Roger Taney: -Could not sue because he was not a citizen -Roger Taney: -Could not sue because he was not a citizen -Congress could NOT ban slavery in new territories -Congress could NOT ban slavery in new territories

14 Illinois Senate Race of 1858 Illinois Senate seat was up for election Illinois Senate seat was up for election Stephen Douglas was incumbent: already held seat Stephen Douglas was incumbent: already held seat Abraham Lincoln: Republican: Challenged Douglas to a series of debates all over the state of Illinois Abraham Lincoln: Republican: Challenged Douglas to a series of debates all over the state of Illinois Douglas: Believed in Popular Sovereignty Douglas: Believed in Popular Sovereignty Lincoln: Wanted to stop the SPREAD of slavery to new territories: “Contain it” Lincoln: Wanted to stop the SPREAD of slavery to new territories: “Contain it” *LINCOLN LOST THE ELECTION BUT GAINED POPULARITY WITH MANY NORTHERNERS *LINCOLN LOST THE ELECTION BUT GAINED POPULARITY WITH MANY NORTHERNERS *THIS SET THE STAGE FOR HIM TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT IN 1860! *THIS SET THE STAGE FOR HIM TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT IN 1860!

15 HARPER’S FERRY: 1859 JOHN BROWN: Wanted to start a slave revolt in the state of Virginia JOHN BROWN: Wanted to start a slave revolt in the state of Virginia -Attacked a U.S. Army Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia -Attacked a U.S. Army Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia -No slaves joined the revolt -No slaves joined the revolt -Brown was captured by Robert E. Lee -Brown was captured by Robert E. Lee -Brown was hanged for “treason” -Brown was hanged for “treason” *Many in North saw Brown as a Martyr: Hero *Many in North saw Brown as a Martyr: Hero *Many in the South saw Brown as an extremist *Many in the South saw Brown as an extremist

16 Election of 1860 By 1860, the United States was very separated by Regional, Political, and Economic differences. By 1860, the United States was very separated by Regional, Political, and Economic differences. Election: Abraham Lincoln (IL): Republican Election: Abraham Lincoln (IL): Republican -Stephen Douglas (IL): Northern Democrat -Stephen Douglas (IL): Northern Democrat -John C. Breckinridge (KY): Southern Democrat -John C. Breckinridge (KY): Southern Democrat -John Bell (TN): Constitutional Union Party -John Bell (TN): Constitutional Union Party

17 Election of 1860 Lincoln gained most of his support in the North while Breckinridge got his from the South Lincoln gained most of his support in the North while Breckinridge got his from the South *Many in the southern states hated Lincoln and vowed to leave the Union if he was elected: They thought that he would end slavery for good (THAT WAS THEIR DECISION TO MAKE, NOT HIS!) *Many in the southern states hated Lincoln and vowed to leave the Union if he was elected: They thought that he would end slavery for good (THAT WAS THEIR DECISION TO MAKE, NOT HIS!) -Abraham Lincoln won the election by a count of 180 Electoral Votes to 72 (Breckinridge) -Abraham Lincoln won the election by a count of 180 Electoral Votes to 72 (Breckinridge)

18 Secession!!! South Carolina left the Union on December 20 th, 1860: Claimed they did it for “State’s Rights” South Carolina left the Union on December 20 th, 1860: Claimed they did it for “State’s Rights” February 1 st, 1861: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined South Carolina: *Did it to defend “American Rights” like the colonist during the revolution of 1776 February 1 st, 1861: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas joined South Carolina: *Did it to defend “American Rights” like the colonist during the revolution of 1776 *John J. Crittenden (KY): wanted to reach a last minute “Compromise” Reestablish 36 30 *John J. Crittenden (KY): wanted to reach a last minute “Compromise” Reestablish 36 30 Crittenden’s Compromise did not work Crittenden’s Compromise did not work

19 Confederate States of America are Born! (CSA) February 8 th, 1861: Montgomery, Alabama February 8 th, 1861: Montgomery, Alabama -REBEL states get together and form the Confederate States of America -REBEL states get together and form the Confederate States of America -Declared each state independent -Declared each state independent -*Jefferson Davis: Became the first President of the CSA -*Jefferson Davis: Became the first President of the CSA

20 Ft. Sumter, S.C. Ft. Sumter: a Union fort in “Confederate” territory (South Carolina) Ft. Sumter: a Union fort in “Confederate” territory (South Carolina) -Major Robert Anderson: Commander: Asked Lincoln for supplies -Major Robert Anderson: Commander: Asked Lincoln for supplies *If Lincoln refuses to send supplies and abandons the fort, then he acknowledges the CSA’s right to exist. If he sends supplies, then he risks war! Lincoln sends supplies *If Lincoln refuses to send supplies and abandons the fort, then he acknowledges the CSA’s right to exist. If he sends supplies, then he risks war! Lincoln sends supplies April 12 th, 1861: Confederate forces attack Ft. Sumter April 12 th, 1861: Confederate forces attack Ft. Sumter *The American Civil War had begun! *The American Civil War had begun!

21 “Upper South” Secedes After Ft. Sumter, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee left the Union After Ft. Sumter, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee left the Union *CSA Capital moved to Richmond, Virginia (100 Miles Away from Washington D.C.) *CSA Capital moved to Richmond, Virginia (100 Miles Away from Washington D.C.)

22 Habeas Corpus and the Border States Lincoln was worried the rest of the slave states would also leave the Union Lincoln was worried the rest of the slave states would also leave the Union He suspended writs of Habeas Corpus: right to be charged with a crime within 24 hours of being arrested: and declared Marshall Law (Curfew) in order to prevent this He suspended writs of Habeas Corpus: right to be charged with a crime within 24 hours of being arrested: and declared Marshall Law (Curfew) in order to prevent this Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, West Virginia (Broke Away from Virginia), and Maryland (If Maryland left, then D.C. was already surrounded by the enemy) were the five slave states that DID NOT leave the Union: AKA Border States Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, West Virginia (Broke Away from Virginia), and Maryland (If Maryland left, then D.C. was already surrounded by the enemy) were the five slave states that DID NOT leave the Union: AKA Border States

23 Which States Left the Union? 11 CSA: CSA: 1. S.C. 1. S.C. 2. N.C. 2. N.C. 3. Virginia 3. Virginia 4. Tennessee 4. Tennessee 5. Mississippi 5. Mississippi 6. Georgia 6. Georgia 7. Florida 7. Florida 8. Louisiana 8. Louisiana 9. Texas 9. Texas 10. Alabama 10. Alabama 11. Arkansas 11. Arkansas

24 Who stayed loyal? 24 Total Border States: Border States: 1. Kentucky 1. Kentucky 2. Delaware 2. Delaware 3. Missouri 3. Missouri 4. W. Virginia 4. W. Virginia 5. Maryland 5. Maryland Non-Slave Union Non-Slave Union 1. Indiana 1. Indiana 2. Illinois 2. Illinois 3. Iowa 3. Iowa 4. Wisconsin 4. Wisconsin 5. Minnesota 5. Minnesota 6. Kansas 6. Kansas 7. Oregon 7. Oregon 8. California 8. California 9. Michigan 9. Michigan 10. Pennsylvania 10. Pennsylvania 11. New York 11. New York 12. New Jersey 12. New Jersey 13. Connecticut 13. Connecticut 14. Rhode Island 14. Rhode Island 15. Massachusetts 15. Massachusetts 16. Ohio 16. Ohio 17. Vermont 17. Vermont 18. New Hampshire 18. New Hampshire 19. Maine 19. Maine

25 Map of U.S. During Civil War


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