Presentation on theme: "The Social & Economic Impact"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Social & Economic Impact HIV/AIDSThe Social & Economic Impact
2 Interact WorldwideInteract Worldwide believes in the fundamental right of all human beings to access quality sexual and reproductive health services. We believe that unless people have access to these services they will never be able to lift themselves out of poverty. As such, we provide sexual and reproductive health services in some of the worlds poorest communities and campaign internationally for the right of all people to these services.
4 ? How can you get HIV? 1. Through these bodily fluids BREASTMILKVAGINALSECRETIONSBLOODCERVICALSECRETIONSSEMEN2. Through these acts:HINFECTED MOTHER:DURING1. PREGNANCY2. BIRTH3. BREAST FEEDINGUNPROTECTED PENETRATIVE INTERCOURSE (HOMOSEXUAL OR HETEROSEXUAL) WITH SOMEONE WHO IS INFECTED1. INJECTION OR TRANSFUSION OF INFECTED BLOOD / BLOOD PRODUCTS2. SHARING UNSTERALISED NEEDLES WITH SOMEONE WHO IS INFECTED
5 HIV Myths 1 ! You cannot catch HIV from kissing. You cannot catch HIV from sitting on a toilet seatYou cannot catch HIV from coughing or sneezing4. You cannot catch HIV from sharing cutlery
6 HIV Myths 2 ! You cannot catch HIV from drinking out of the same glass holding handsYou cannot catch HIVfrom hugging
7 Adults and children estimated to be living with HIV as of end 2005 Total: 40.3 (36.7 – 45.3) millionWestern & Central Europe[ – ]North Africa & Middle East[ – 1.4 million]Sub-Saharan Africa25.8 million[23.8 – 28.9 million]Eastern Europe & Central Asia1.6 million[ – 2.3 million]South & South-East Asia7.4 million[4.5 – 11.0 million]Oceania74 000[ – ]North America1.2 million[ – 1.8 million]Caribbean[ – ]Latin America1.8 million[1.4 – 2.4 million]East Asia[ – 1.4 million]map in the back of epi update
8 Country Level Swaziland 38.8% Botswana 37.3 Lesotho 28.9 Zimbabwe 24.6 S. Africa 21.5Namibia 21.3Zambia 16.5Malawi 14.2CAR 13.5Mozambique 12.2S. Africa 5,300,000India 5,100,000Nigeria 3,600,000Zimbabwe 1,800,000Tanzania 1,600,000Ethiopia 1,500,000Mozamb 1,300,000Kenya 1,200,000DRC 1,100,000USA 950,000
9 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 25.8 MILLION INFECTED AIDS HAS LEFT BEHIND OVER 13 MILLION ORPHANS66% OF THE PEOPLE WITH HIV LIVE HERE.57% OF THE INFECTED ADULTS ARE WOMENHERE AIDS IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATHSWAZILAND HAS THE HIGHEST PREVALENCE OF HIV IN THE WORLD % OF THE ADULT POPULATION INFECTED.2.4 MILLION ESTIMATED DEATHS AT THE END OF 2005
10 Western & Central Europe Estimated number of adults and children newly infected with HIV during 2005Total: 4.9 (4.3 – 6.6) millionWestern & Central Europe22 000[ – ]North Africa & Middle East67 000[ – ]Sub-Saharan Africa3.2 million[2.8 – 3.9 million]Eastern Europe & Central Asia[ – ]East Asia[ – ]South& South-East Asia[ – 2.4 million]Oceania8200[2400 – ]North America43 000[ – ]Caribbean30 000[ – ]Latin America[ – ]map in the back of epi update
11 From “Health Issue” to “Development Crisis” Destruction of social capitalKnowledge base of societyProduction sectors: agriculture, industryWeakening of institutions- Civil service, judiciary, armed forces, education, health- Inhibition of private sector growthWider, deeper poverty
12 Estimated adult and child deaths from AIDS during 2005 Total: 3.1 (2.8 – 3.6) millionWestern & Central Europe12 000[<15 000]North Africa & Middle East58 000[ – ]Sub-Saharan Africa2.4 million[2.1 – 2.7 million]Eastern Europe& Central Asia62 000[ – ]East Asia41 000[ – ]South& South-East Asia[ – ]Oceania3600[1700 – 8200]North America18 000[9000 – ]Caribbean24 000[ – ]Latin America66 000[ – ]map in the back of epi update
13 Percentage of 15-year-old males who will die of HIV/AIDS based on current risk levels
14 Projected population structure with and without the AIDS epidemic, Botswana 202080Projected populationstructure in 20207570MalesFemales65Deficits due to AIDS6055Age in years50454035302520151051401201008060402020406080100120140Population (thousands)Source: US Census Bureau, World Population Profile 2000
15 Women Women are infected up to 10 times more easily than men Social and economic factors increase women’s vulnerabilityIn SSA 75% of years olds infected are women, globally 47% of total infections are in womenWomen bear the social and economic burden of the epidemic
16 Household ImpactIn Zambia and South Africa household incomes fall by 66-80%In Vietnam one fifth of children in AIDS households had started to workA study from Uganda shows that 25% of households are providing for an orphanIn Zambia when a mother dies 65% of households break up
17 Demand & Supply for Education The school enrollment rate among orphans was 39% in Central African Republic, two thirds of the national rate of 60%Source: Survey from CAR, UNICEF, 1999Supply:Over 30% of all educators in Malawi and Zambia were estimated to be HIV positive in 2000In Tanzania 27,000 teachers will have died by 2020
18 Bed occupancy required for AIDS patients, Zimbabwe 19902000AIDS bedsNon-AIDS bedsSource : UNAIDS, 2000
19 Potential AIDS treatment costs as a percent of the Ministry of Health Budget 70% of MOH Budget605040302010Ethiopia 2014Kenya 2005Zimbabwe 2005Source: Stover & Bollinger, 1999
20 HIV/AIDS affects rural areas 69% of the population of the most affected countries lives in rural areasAIDS affects economic sectors with mobile/ migratory workers (agriculture, mining)AIDS-related traditional practices are more prevalent in rural areasAIDS-affected urban dwellers often return to rural areas
21 HIV/AIDS and food insecurity: deadly Poverty andInequalityNew HIVinfectionsFood InsecurityFaster progressionHIV to AIDSNUTRITION: ROLEMalnutritionRisky survivalactivitiesSource: Mullins
22 NAPHAM Malawi “We go to schools to warn youth about the dangers of HIV. We teach about HIV/AIDSstigma and discrimination and after wesummarise with a play. And also we go tocommunity outreach. When we go tocommunity outreach we just perform aplay. We first find out what problems thecommunity has, and we do a play abouttheir problems, their concerns such asabout VCT (voluntary counselling andtesting), about HIV/AIDS information ingeneral, positive living, stigma andDiscrimination.”Victoria Kambemba, voluntary youth worker forNAPHAM, performing to a lively crowd at amarketplace to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS.
23 SOME POSITIVES UGANDA, ZAMBIA, SENEGAL UGANDA: HIV PREVALENCE RATES DROPPED TO 7%. GOVERNMENT TALKED OPENLY ABOUT HIV AND IT IS NOW FIRMLY ON THE POLITICAL AGENDASENEGAL: HIV HAS BEEN KEPT AT PREVALENCE RATES OF 0.8% THANKS TO VIGOROUS PREVENTION PROGRAMMESSENEGALUGANDAZAMBIAZAMBIA: PREVALENCE AT 16.5%BUT: URBAN MEN & WOMEN REPORT LESS SEX, FEWER PARTNERS AND A HIGHER RATE OF CONDOM USE
24 2005: success storiesZimbabwe: number of new HIV infections has gone down, mainly due to increased use of condoms and fewer partnersCaribbean: Haiti may be turning a corner, particularly in urban areas, due to increased abstention and faithfulness to one partner, however condom use among young people has decreased as has the age of first sex.