Presentation on theme: "Baroque Art Slides # 19-24. Baroque Historical Background: The Baroque came about in Rome near the end of the 16 th century – much of the art was patronized."— Presentation transcript:
Baroque Historical Background: The Baroque came about in Rome near the end of the 16 th century – much of the art was patronized by the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation. Artists were good at drawing and painting the human figure and reproducing complicated perspective. There is much use of colour and value contrasts in painting. The style is characterized by time (capturing a moment), light (dramatic use of light and shadow called “chiaroscuro”) and space (a sense of occupying space and use of positive and negative space). Italian Baroque – Highly religious and emotional. Influenced by the Counter- Reformation because the Art is meant to help ordinary people connect with the Catholic religion. Patrons: Church, Royalty & Nobility Dutch Baroque – Holland was Protestant and Democratic. They forbade having religious images in Church. Tended to paint still lifes, landscapes and scenes of everyday life. Patrons: middle class
Chiaroscuro – Means “coming out of the darkness.” Often seen as a strong contrast of dark and light values in painting – where light parts seem to emerge from surrounding darkness. Tenebrism – Exaggerated strong contrasts between light and dark seen in late 16th century Italian painting. A more dramatic version of chiaroscuro. Foreshortening – Drawing or painting an object or person that is not parallel to the picture plane. It makes the object or person appear to recede into space – areas closer appear larger; further away appears smaller.
Borromini The Baroque in Italy… Slide #19 Borromini. St. Ivo. (1643-1660 AD) Rome. Technical: Uses of concave forms in architecture. there is a lot of symmetry and curvature in this design – provides a sense of movement in architecture. Baroque feature: the decorative details (eg. Symbols of the Pope that the chapel was created for) Purpose of the Building: Chapel for the University of Rome
Interior view of the dome of St. Ivo… The dome, based on two intersecting equilateral triangles, is one of the most unique features of the structure. Uses concave and convex forms. Focus on design, therefore no need for painting or gold leaf to decorate the dome – it appeared just as heavenly remaining pure white.
Slide #20 Bernini. David. (1623 AD) Marble. Technical: uses his own face as a model dramatic / shows David caught in the middle of battle Multiple view points Brings the viewer into the scene About the Artist: 25 years old commissioned by Cardinal Borghese He was a sculptor, painter, architect Borromini’s rival Meaning of the Work: Biblical story of David and Goliath
Caravaggio Slide #21 Caravaggio. Crucifixion of St. Peter (1600-1601) Oil on canvas. Technical: Uses chiaroscuro – “coming out of the darkness” used everyday people as players in the theatrical settings – here they even wear some contemporary clothes. Meant to engage and involve the viewer in extraordinary religious events – but shocking for some patrons About the Artist: One of the most influential painters of the Baroque very volatile personality in jail for murder Meaning of the Work: Biblical story
Gentileschi Slide #22 Artemesia Gentileschi. Judith and Holofernes. (1612-1621) Oil on canvas. Personal first recorded female artist in Europe – was a follower of Caravaggio’s style. raped by her art teacher, uses these emotions in her art work Technical: uses exaggerated form of chiaroscuro called tenebrism Excellent use of foreshortening (dramatic perspective, where parts of the figure are closer than other parts. Symbolism/Meaning of the work: The Biblical scene shows the Hebrew hero, Judith, who surrendered herself to the Babylonian army and beheaded their general, Holofernes.
Rembrandt The Baroque in Holland… Technical: chiaroscuro, dramatic lighting oils The Artist: considered greatest of the Dutch painters. created a series of self-portraits throughout his lifetime. Meaning of the work: Painting about unconditional love Love and forgiveness are waiting Biblical Story of son who returns home after squandering all his money and father accepts him. Rembrandt saw himself in this painting, he knew he had wandering away but that it was never too late to return home. Slide #23 Rembrandt. The Return of the Prodigal Son. (1662) Oil on canvas.
Slide #24 Vermeer. Girl with a Pearl Earring. (1665-66) Oil on panel. Technical: underpainting, uses glazes to build up colour interested in natural light carefully planned compositions delicate portraits use of chiaroscuro and realism. master of texture used very fine dabs of paint to create textures and reflections of different materials. genre paintings About the Artist: only completed about 50 paintings in his lifetime / worked very slow subject of this painting: everyday life in Delft, Holland This painting was discovered in 1882 / artist was not well known in his day Meaning of the Work Woman is mysterious / could be his eldest daughter, his patron, a maid
Vermeer Believed to use the camera obscura in creating his compositions – careful understanding of light, detail, and realistic perspective.