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Market Structures Ms. M. Ward Economics

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Presentation on theme: "Market Structures Ms. M. Ward Economics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Market Structures Ms. M. Ward Economics
We are going to be learning about Market Structures this week. You will need to create a word processing document with the questions and answers on this Power Point.

2 Type of market structure influences how a firm behaves:
Pricing Supply Barriers to Entry Efficiency Competition What is an example of a Barrier to Entry? Which of the following companies is more difficult to start up- Car Manufacturer Restaurant Why? Market Structures

3 Market Structures Degree of competition in the industry
High levels of competition – Perfect competition Limited competition – Monopoly Degrees of competition in between Give an example of a company where there is a high level of competition. Give an example of a company where the competition is in between. Market Structures

4 Market Structure Determinants of market structure
Freedom of entry and exit Nature of the product – homogenous (identical), differentiated? Control over supply/output Control over price Barriers to entry Is Agriculture a market where the product is identical or differentiated? Does a farmer control the price of wheat? Market Structure

5 Perfect Competition: Market Structure Free entry and exit to industry
Homogenous product – identical so no consumer preference Large number of buyers and sellers – no individual seller can influence price Sellers are price takers – have to accept the market price Perfect information available to buyers and sellers At a farmers market is there a large number of buyers and sellers? Can a car manufacturer enter the market quickly? Market Structure

6 Examples of perfect competition:
Financial markets – stock exchange, currency markets, bond markets? Agriculture? To what extent? Go to the web site and find the price of PowerShares DB Agriculture (DBA) How much did the price change today? Market Structure

7 Market Structure Advantages of Perfect Competition:
High degree of competition helps allocate resources to most efficient use Price = marginal costs Normal profit made in the long run Firms operate at maximum efficiency Consumers benefit Do you think there are enough choices of cell phone providers? Why or why not? Market Structure

8 Market Structure What happens in a competitive environment?
New idea? – firm makes short term abnormal profit Other firms enter the industry to take advantage of abnormal profit Supply increases – price falls Long run – normal profit made Choice for consumer Price sufficient for normal profit to be made but no more! Think about the Apple iphone. Do you think Apple made an abnormal profit in the first 6 months after the introduction of that product? Do you know anyone who has an iphone? Market Structure

9 Market Structure Imperfect or Monopolistic Competition
Many buyers and sellers Products differentiated Relatively free entry and exit Each firm may have a tiny ‘monopoly’ because of the differentiation of their product Firm has some control over price Examples – restaurants, professions – solicitors, etc., building firms – plasterers, plumbers, etc. Do you think there is more competition in Mexican restaurants or Thai restaurants in Chicago. Why? Market Structure

10 Market Structure Oligopoly – Competition amongst the few
Industry dominated by small number of large firms Many firms may make up the industry High barriers to entry Products could be highly differentiated – branding or homogenous Non–price competition Price stability within the market - kinked demand curve? Potential for collusion? Abnormal profits High degree of interdependence between firms The Auto industry is an oligopoly. What do you think it would cost to enter the Auto industry? If Toyota and Ford worked together do you think it would raise or lower prices? Market Structure

11 Market Structure Examples of oligopolistic structures: Supermarkets
Banking industry Chemicals Oil Medicinal drugs Broadcasting Go to and find 2 more examples of oligopolistic structures. Market Structure

12 Measuring Oligopoly: Market Structure
Concentration ratio – the proportion of market share accounted for by top X number of firms: E.g. 5 firm concentration ratio of 80% - means top 5 five firms account for 80% of market share 3 firm CR of 72% - top 3 firms account for 72% of market share Fill in the blanks: The largest oil companies account for ___ percent of the market. The largest pharmaceutical companies account of ___ percent of the market. Find the answer on the internet. Market Structure

13 Duopoly: Market Structure Industry dominated by two large firms
Possibility of price leader emerging – rival will follow price leaders pricing decisions High barriers to entry Abnormal profits likely Find two examples of a Duopoly on the Internet Market Structure

14 Market Structure Monopoly: Pure monopoly – industry is the firm!
Actual monopoly – where firm has >25% market share Natural Monopoly – high fixed costs – gas, electricity, water, telecommunications, rail Give an example of a pure monopoly Give an example of an actual monopoly Market Structure

15 Monopoly: Market Structure High barriers to entry
Firm controls price OR output/supply Abnormal profits in long run Possibility of price discrimination Consumer choice limited Prices in excess of MC Define monopoly Define price discrimination Market Structure

16 Market Structure Advantages and disadvantages of monopoly: Advantages:
May be appropriate if natural monopoly Encourages R&D Encourages innovation Development of some products not likely without some guarantee of monopoly in production Economies of scale can be gained – consumer may benefit What is R&D? What is an economy of scale? Market Structure

17 Market Structure Disadvantages:
Exploitation of consumer – higher prices Potential for supply to be limited - less choice Potential for inefficiency – X-inefficiency – complacency over controls on costs Is a public school a monopoly? Why or why not? Market Structure

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