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Concentrating Solar Power for Sea Water Desalination Franz Trieb German Aerospace Center (DLR) 12.11.2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Concentrating Solar Power for Sea Water Desalination Franz Trieb German Aerospace Center (DLR) 12.11.2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Concentrating Solar Power for Sea Water Desalination Franz Trieb German Aerospace Center (DLR) 12.11.2007

2 German Aerospace Center (Germany) Dr. Franz Trieb, Dipl. Geo. Julia Gehrung, Dr. Peter Viebahn, Dr. Christoph Schillings, Dipl. Phys. Carsten Hoyer National Energy Research Center (Jordan) Eng. Malek Kabariti, Waled Shahin, Ammar Al-Taher University of Aden, (Yemen) Prof. Dr. Hussein Altowaie University of Sanaa, (Yemen) Prof. Dr. Towfik Sufian University of Bahrain, (Bahrain) Prof. Dr. Waheeb Alnaser Prof. Dr. Abdelaziz Bennouna, formerly at CNR (Morocco) Intern. Forschungszentrum für Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (Germany) Dr. Nasir El-Bassam Kernenergien – The Solar Power Company (Germany) Dipl.-Ing. Jürgen Kern Nokraschy Engineering GmbH (Germany) Dr.-Ing. Hani El-Nokraschy Deutsche Gesellschaft Club of Rome (Germany) Dr. Gerhard Knies, Dr. Uwe Möller House of Water and Environment (Palestine) Dr. Amjad Aliewi, Hafez Shaheen Center for Solar Energy Studies (Libya) Dr. Ibrahim Elhasairi Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (Morocco) Mme. Amal Haddouche (Director General) University of Bremen (Germany) Dr. Heike Glade Partners

3 Task Assessment of the Potential of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) for Seawater Desalination for the Urban Centres in 20 Countries of the Middle East and North Africa.

4 Work Packages: 1. Technologies (combination of CSP and desalting technologies) 2. Water Resources and Solar Energy Resources 3. Demand Side Scenario 4. Market Potential 2000-2050 5. Socio-Economic Impacts 6. Environmental Impacts 7. Literature Final Report a la MED-CSP and TRANS-CSP by end 2007

5 MED: Multi-Effect-Distillation RO: Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination WP 1: Technologies Reference Plant Definition MED Solar FieldStorage Power Plant Water Power fuel solar heat heat Combined Heat & Power RO Solar FieldStorage Power Plant Water Power fuel solar heat Power Only Solar FieldStorage MED fuel solar heat Water Power grid Heat Only

6 WP 1: Technologies Conclusions Base load capability makes CSP best suited renewable source for large scale desalination MSF is the less efficient desalination technology with high energy demand CSP/MED and CSP/RO have similar technical and economic performance, no preference for either one can be seen without detailed site assessment Linear Fresnel collector fields are particularly well suited for seawater desalination Present cost of CSP desalination between 1 - 2 /m³ Medium term cost of 0.2 - 0.3 /m³ is achievable in combination with power generation and using solar energy storage CSP technology is ready for the seawater desalination market

7 WP 2: Resources Exploitable Natural Water

8 WP 2: Resources Conclusions Water poverty (< 1000 m³(cap/y) in all except 4 MENA countries Exploitable natural water 328 Bm³/y Plenty fossil groundwater but only small part exploitable Huge solar energy resource available in all MENA countries CSP-Potential for non-conventional water from seawater desalination available

9 WP 3: Freshwater Demand Water Demand Prospects by Country

10 WP 3: Freshwater Demand Conclusions MENA population will double by 2050 MENA economies will approximate European level by 2050 Water demand would grow from 270 Bm³/y in 2000 to 460 Bm³/y in 2050 Water deficit would increase from 50 Bm³/y in 2000 to 150 Bm³/y in 2050 Over-use of groundwater is already above 45 Bm³/y Extreme efficiency could limit deficit to 100 Bm³/y Efficiency and new sources will be required to cover water deficits

11 WP 4: CSP Markets Middle East & North Africa

12 WP 4: CSP Markets Conclusions Sustainable supply must be initiated immediately to avoid groundwater collapse Increase efficiency of water production, distribution, end-use and management Increase re-use of waste water Start introduction and dissemination of CSP-desalination plants Over-use of groundwater will increase still from 45 Bm³/y to 70 Bm³/y in 2020 Conventional desalination will grow by a factor of 5 All measures should be taken to avoid groundwater collapse, but CSP is the key to sustainability

13 WP 5: Socio-Economic Impacts CSP Learning Curves @ 5 ct/kWh electricity cost @ 0.5 /m³ water cost

14 WP 5: Socio-Economic Impacts Conclusions Cost perspective of CSP desalination is affordable (< 0.4 /m³), while that of conventional desalination is not Efficiency enhancement and desalination are less expensive than not acting Solar water can avoid dependency on virtual water CSP desalination can create arable land for rural and urban development CSP desalination is a totally over-looked solution to the MENA water crisis

15 WP 6: Environmental Impacts Impact on Global Warming

16 WP 6: Environmental Impacts Conclusions Large scale conventional seawater desalination would create significant environmental impacts CSP can reduce energy related emissions to few percent Beachwell or horizontal drain intake and nano-filtration can reduce additives Horizontal drain intake can reduce impingement and entrainment and horizontal drain discharge can avoid concentration of heat and salt Advanced CSP seawater desalination can be compatible with the environment

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