Presentation on theme: "APPLIED MARKETING Session 6. What are marketing communications? Marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade and."— Presentation transcript:
What are marketing communications? Marketing communications are the means by which firms attempt to inform, persuade and remind consumers, directly or indirectly, about the products and brands they sell.
Table 19.1a Common advertising communication platforms Print and broadcast ads Packaging – outer and inserts Motion pictures Brochures and booklets Posters and leaflets Directories Reprints of ads Billboards Display signs Point-of-purchase displays Audiovisual material Symbols and logos Videotapes
Table 19.1b Sales promotion communication platforms Contests, games, sweepstakes and lotteries Premiums and gifts Sampling Fairs and trade shows Exhibits Demonstrations Coupons Rebates Low-interest financing Entertainment Trade-in allowances Continuity programmes Tie-ins
Table 19.1c Events and experiences platforms Sports Entertainment Festivals Arts Causes Factory tours Company museums Street activities
Table 19.1d Public relation and publicity communication platforms Press kits Speeches Seminars Annual reports Charitable donations Publications Community relations Lobbying Identity media Company magazine
Table 19.1e Direct and interactive communication platforms Catalogues Mailings Telemarketing Electronic shopping Blogs TV shopping Fax Email Voicemail Websites Table 19.1 Common communication platforms (continued)
Table 19.1f Other common communication platforms Word-of-mouth marketing Person to person Chatrooms Blogs Personal selling Sales presentations Sales meetings Incentive programmes Samples Fairs and trade shows Table 19.1 Common communication platforms (continued)
Figure 19.3 Response hierarchy models Sources: a E. K. Strong (1925) The Psychology of Selling, New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 9; b R. J. Lavidge and G. A. Steiner, (1961) A model for predictive measurements of advertising effectiveness, Journal of Marketing, October, 61; c E. M. Rogers (1962) Diffusion of Innovation, New York: Free Press, pp. 79-86; d Various sources
Figure 19.2 Elements in the communication process
Field of experience Receiver’s field Sender’s field
The communications process Selective attention Selective distortion Selective retention
An ideal ad campaign The right consumer is exposed to the message at the right time and place The ad causes consumer to pay attention The ad reflects consumer’s level of understanding and behaviors with product The ad correctly positions brand in terms of points- of-difference and points-of-parity The ad motivates consumers to consider purchase of the brand The ad creates strong brand associations
Designing the communications Message strategy Creative strategy Message source Global adaptation
Advantages to parts of the marketing communications mix Advertising Pervasiveness Amplified expressiveness Impersonality Sales promotion Communication Incentive Invitation
Public relations and publicity High credibility Ability to catch buyers off guard Dramatisation Events and experiences Relevant Involving Implicit Advantages to parts of the marketing communications mix
Direct marketing Customised Up-to-date Interactive Personal selling Personal interaction Cultivation Response Word-of-mouth marketing Credible Personal Timely Advantages to parts of the marketing communications mix
Cost effectiveness by buyer readiness stage Figure 19.5 Cost effectiveness of three different communication tools at different buyer readiness stages
Television Advantages Reaches broad spectrum of consumers Low cost per exposure Ability to demonstrate product use Ability to portray image and brand personality Disadvantages Brief Clutter High cost of production High cost of placement Lack of attention by viewers
Print ads Advantages Detailed product information Ability to communicate user imagery Flexibility Ability to segment Disadvantages Passive medium Clutter Unable to demonstrate product use
Print ad evaluation criteria Is the message clear at a glance? Is the benefit in the headline? Does the illustration support the headline? Does the first line of the copy support or explain the headline and illustration? Is the ad easy to read and follow? Is the product easily identified? Is the brand or sponsor clearly identified?
Print ad evaluation -- Stickiness Simplicity, Concreteness, Unexpectedness Credibility – details, statistics, sinatra test, testible Emotions –imagine yourself, “They laughed when I sat down at the piano, but when I started to play…” Stories – Challenge (David and Goliath), Connection (do good story), Creativity (apple on Newton’s head)
Why sponsor events? To identify with a particular target market or life style. To increase brand awareness. To create or reinforce consumer perceptions of key brand image associations. To enhance corporate image. To create experiences and evoke feelings. To express commitment to community. To entertain key clients or reward employees. To permit merchandising or promotional opportunities.
Tasks aided by public relations Launching new products Repositioning a mature product Building interest in a product category Influencing specific target groups Defending products that have encountered public problems Building the corporate image in a way that reflects favorable on products
Evaluating advertising effectiveness Communication effect research Consumer feedback method Portfolio tests Laboratory tests Sales-effect research
What is direct marketing? Direct marketing is the use of consumer-direct channels to reach and deliver goods and services to customers without using market middlemen. Direct mail Catalogs Telemarketing Email
Online promotional opportunities Websites Search ads Display ads Viral marketing Internet-specific ads and videos Sponsorships Social Media Online communities Email Mobile marketing
Guerilla Marketing Guerrilla marketing is an advertising strategy in which low-cost unconventional means (graffiti, sticker bombing, flash mobs) are utilized, often in a localized fashion or large network of individual cells, to convey or promote a product or an idea.
Viral Marketing Techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives (such as product sales) through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of viruses It can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet. The key to effective viral: Create and execute an idea that's intriguing enough to get consumers to interact.