2 What is Research Problem A research problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.In research process, research problem is the first and foremost step.It can either be a real life situation or it may also refers to a set of opportunities.
3 Types of Research Problem There are two types of Research Problem:Problems which relates to states of natureEg – Status of working children in any Metropolitan city in 2012.Problems which relates to relationship between variablesEg – Lack of chemical fertilizer in the main cause of low production of grain food.
4 Components of Research Problem An individual or a group or an organisation that has some difficulty or problemSome objective to be attainedAlternative means for attaining the objectivesSome doubt in the mind of a researcher with regard to the selection of alternativesSome environment(s) to which the difficulty pertains
5 Selecting Research Problem Subject which is overdone shall not be chosen.Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher.Too narrow or too vague problems should be avoided.Subject selected for research should be familiar and feasible.Few factors to be considered are importance of the subject, the costs involved, the time factor, the qualifications and the training of a researcherSelection of a problem must be preceded by a preliminary study in case of new problems.
6 Technique Involved In Defining A Problem Techniques involved are:Statement of the problem in a general wayUnderstanding the nature of the problemSurveying the available literatureDeveloping the ideas through discussionsRephrasing the research problem into a working proposition.
8 What is Research Design It is an important step after defining the research problem.Research design helps in deciding upon the issues regarding what, where, when, how much and by what means, an inquiry or a research study constitute.Research design refers to the plan, structure, and strategy of research--the blueprint that will guide the research process.
9 Parts of Research Design The sampling designmethods of selecting items to be observedThe observational designconditions under which the observations are to be madeThe statistical designhow many items are to be observedhow the information and data gathered to be analysedThe operational designDeals with the procedures specified
10 Need for Research Design It makes research as efficient as possible by yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of efforts, time and money.Research design stands for advance planning of methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis.
11 Highlights of Research Design Nature of the studyPurpose of the studyLocation where the study be conductedNature of data requiredWhere the required data be availableWhat time period the study would coverType of sample design to be chosenTechniques of data collection would be usedMethods of data analysis to be adoptedStyle in which the report would be prepared
12 Features of Good Research Design FlexibleAppropriateEfficientEconomicalMinimises biasnessMaximises the reliability of the dataSmallest experimental errorYield maximal information
13 Effective Research Design Guiding principle for effective control in a research design is:The MAXMINCON PrincipleMAXimize Systematic VarianceMINimize Error VarianceCONtrol Variance
14 Types of Research Design Exploratory Research DesignConclusive Research DesignDescriptive Research designExperimental Research DesignHypothesis-testing research DesignCausal Research Design
15 Exploratory Research Also termed as formulative research studies This research studies the subject about which either their is no information or very little information is available.The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights.
16 Purpose of Exploratory Research Formulate a problem for more precise investigationEstablishing priorities for further researchGathering information about the practical problemsIncreasing analyst’s familiarity with the problemClarifying the concepts
17 Exploratory Research Methods Experience SurveyTechnique in which individuals who are knowledgeable about a particular research problem are surveyed.Secondary Data AnalysisCase StudiesPilot StudiesFocus Group InterviewsUnstructured free flowing interview with a small group of people.
18 Types of Research Design Conclusive ResearchThis research provides the information that is useful in reaching conclusions or decision making.Two TypesDescriptive ResearchIt is concerned with determining frequency with which something occurs or how two variable vary together.Experimental ResearchIt is a process in which one or more variables are manipulated under conditions which allow the collection of data which show the effects.
19 Types of Research Design Causal ResearchThis types of research is concerned with finding cause and effect relationship.
20 Concepts related to Research Design Dependent and Independent VariablesExtraneous variableControlConfounded Relationship