2 Composition Nitrogen-78%: fundamental for living organisms Oxygen-21%:produced through photosynthesisWater Vapor 0-4%:higher or lower depending on regionCarbon Dioxide <<1%: currently increased due to fossil fuels, greenhouse gasMethane-<<<1%: greenhouse gas-400 million tons per yearNitrous Oxide-<<<1%: greenhouse gas-6million tons per yearOzone-<<<1%: absorbs harmful UV radiation form the sun, very important, depleted due to photochemical smog
4 LayersTroposphere- 0-7 miles above the surface, 75% of the atmosphere’s mass is in the troposphere, weather occurs hereStratosphere- temperature increases with altitude due to absorption of heat by ozone, contains the ozone layerMesosphere- temperature decreases with altitude, meteors burn up in this layerThermosphere (Ionosphere) – temperature increases with altitude due to gamma rays, X-Rays, and UV Radiation, northern lights aurora occurs here
6 Weather Where does weather occur? THE TROPOSHERE Weather is-caused by the movement or transfer of heat energy which influences temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, etc.-Energy can be transferred through Radiation (solar energy), Conduction (collisions of heat-carrying molecules), or Convection (primary way energy is transferred from hot to cold)Regions near the equator receive the most solar energy.
7 Factors that Influence Climate Air Mass-large body of air with similar temperature and moisture contentAir Pressure- decreases with altitude, low pressure causes stormy weather, high pressure creates fair weatherAlbedo- reflectivity- snow and ice have high albedoAltitude- greater altitude equal colder temperatureAngle of Sunlight- areas close to equator receive most sunCarbon Cycle- carbon dioxide increases warmingClouds- hold water vapor, cause rain (high level clouds are ice crystals)Distance to Oceans- the closer to an ocean, the more humid an area isFronts- cold fronts, warm fronts
8 Land Changes- deforestation and urbanization Landmass Distribution- different materials absorb different amounts of heatLatitude- the higher, the less solar radiationLocationHumidity- moisture traps in heat causing warmthMountain Ranges- effects rain receiving, mountain altitude makes cooler air, shadows make cooler airPlate Tectonics and Volcanoes- produce carbon dioxide creating warmingWind PatternsEarths RotationHuman Caused problems- pollution
10 Major Climate Periods2,000,000 B.C.E to 12,000 B.C.E= Pleistocene Ice Age- large glacial ice sheets covered North America, Europe, and Asia12,000 B.C.E to 3000 B.C.E- The Earth started to warm up after the ice age.
12 Coriolis Effect-the influence of Earth's rotation, which tends to turn air and water toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere
13 Atmospheric Pollution Atmospheric pollution can be defined as the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological material that are harmful or humans and other living organism, as well as damage the environment.The main pollutant is fossil fuels. (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and other volatile organic compounds(VOCs), particulate matter, persistent free radicals, and heavy metals.)2.4 million people die each year from diseases caused, or made worse, by atmospheric pollution.
14 The first picture shows space junk around the Earth The first picture shows space junk around the Earth. Second shows an ozone hole. The one above this is photo- chemical smog.
15 Some strange but helpful YouTube videos Just in case you didn’t know the difference between temperature and climate.Just in case you didn’t know the layers of the atmosphere.
16 Helpful Sites and Study Aides for the Atmosphere 1/textbook/atmosphere/atmospheric_compositio n.htmlscience-atmosphere-and-winds-flash-cards/