Presentation on theme: "Describe the causes and effects of the financial difficulties that plagued the American farmer and trace the rise and decline of populism NCSCOS 4.03 Michael."— Presentation transcript:
Describe the causes and effects of the financial difficulties that plagued the American farmer and trace the rise and decline of populism NCSCOS 4.03 Michael Quiñones, NBCT www.socialstudiesguy.com
Macro Concepts Innovation-the method of advancing and improving the way of doing something. Conflict-problem or issue that is controversial and can cause problems without compromise. Micro Concepts Inflation-rising prices of resources due to scarcity. Deflation-falling prices of resources due to oversupply. Supply and demand-amount and desire for a resource. Populism-political movement led and controlled by citizens [mostly late 1800s farmers] to change the government.
The Grange A united group of American farmers who came together to fight for their rights and defend their economic interests. This group of farmers called itself the Grange Farmers believed they were being exploited by railroads. Railroads were charging huge fees to transport farmers’ crops and livestock. The Grange wanted the U.S. Government to step in regulate the railroads. As a result of political pressure it placed on members of Congress and several lawsuits the power of railroads to charge excessive fees for freight transportation was decreased.
Farmers’ Alliances Several other farmers’ groups came together in different regions: Southern Alliance-Farmers from the Southern part of the U.S. who grew/raised tobacco, hogs and cotton. Southern Alliance-Farmers from the Southern part of the U.S. who grew/raised tobacco, hogs and cotton. Colored farmers-Mostly sharecroppers and tenant farmers who grew cotton, tobacco and corn in the South. These farmers’ groups combined forces to fight their economic enemies (e.g. railroads) by forcing them to negotiate with large numbers of farmers instead of single farmers.
Money Policy Money Policy To strengthen the U.S. economy several monetary policies were attempted. Greenbacks-During the U.S. Civil War with the lack of gold the Union [and Confederacy] issued paper currency that promised to pay the face value [$5, $10, $50, etc] with “to the bearer on demand.” The government was asking people to trust it to pay gold later on. Gold Standard-This policy forced the U.S. government to issue only the amount of paper money the U.S. had in gold reserves in the U.S. Treasury. Bimetallism-This policy allowed the U.S. government to issue paper money based on gold and silver reserves.
Railroad Court Cases Railroad Court Cases Two landmark U.S. Supreme Court cases were influenced by the pressure exerted on the U.S. Government by the Grange. Wabash vs. Illinois in 1886 the Court ruled that individual states could not interfere with interstate commerce related to railroads. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed soon after this decision in order to control trade between states. This ruling gave railroads more power to charge unfair transport fees. Railroads were worried about the power of large companies (their biggest customers) demands for rebates on freight charges. Munn vs. Illinois in 1887 the Court ruled that states could regulate businesses within their borders. This ruling gave states more power protect farmers from unfair transport fees charged by railroads.
Omaha Platform Omaha Platform The set of ideas [platform] adopted by the Populist party. The main objective of the Populist Party was for the U.S. government to own all the railroads and telegraphs.
William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan In 1896 at the Democratic National Convention William Jennings Bryan was a candidate for the presidential nomination as a democrat. He represented the state of Nebraska which had thousands of farmers. In a famous speech criticizing the gold standard Bryan believed that bimetallism [gold and silver supported currency] would make more money available for cash poor farmers. Recording of speech Text of speech
Letter Letter Write a letter to the President of the United States or the Congress You can be a railroad company owner You can be a poor farmer You must explain why the federal government should create laws to support your side. You should be convincing and use examples from what you learned.