Presentation on theme: "The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Chapter 15. The importance of chromosomes In 1902, the chromosomal theory of inheritance began to take form, stating:"— Presentation transcript:
The importance of chromosomes In 1902, the chromosomal theory of inheritance began to take form, stating: genes have specific locations (loci) on chromosomes, and you randomly get one chromosome from each parent.
Fruit flies – Common in Genetics Experiments Fruit flies are Drosophila melanogaster They have 4 pairs of chromosomes They use the same XX, XY sex determination as people They breed quickly (every 2 weeks, hundreds of offspring) Wild type is the phenotype most common in natural populations
Linked Genes Genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together “linked genes” So why do offspring look different from parents?
Genetic Recombination Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits different from those found in either parent. 1. Independent Assortment 2. Crossing Over
Independent Assortment The phenotypes of the parents are called parental types. The offspring, with new and different phenotypes, are called recombinant types or recombinants. This happens because offspring receive one chromosome from each parent, and end up looking different.
Crossing Over In prophase I of meiosis, genes of homologous chromosomes switch around, called crossing over. This creates recombinant chromosomes, which makes offspring look different than parents.
Linkage Mapping A genetic map is an ordered list of the locations of genes on a chromosome.
Linkage Mapping Based on a linkage map, one can assume: the farther apart 2 genes are, the more likely a crossover will occur between them, therefore the recombination frequency is higher.
Linkage Mapping A linkage map is a genetic map based on recombination frequencies. Units are called map units and show the distance between genes. 1 map unit = a 1% chance of recombination. If two genes are 50 map units apart, how likely is recombination?
Cytogenic Map A cytogenic map locates genes on chromosomes with respect to visible features like stained bands.
Sex linked traits Men are XY, Women are XX Eggs only carry X, sperm carry X or Y Significant genes are only carried on the X chromosomes, which is larger and longer.
Sex-linked genes A gene located on the X chromosome is called a sex-linked gene. Females ONLY express the trait if they inherit the trait on both chromosomes: X a X a If they are X A X A (normal) or X A X a (carrier) they do not have it Men ONLY need ONE copy of the recessive gene to have the trait: X a Y If they are X A Y, they don’t have it.
Sex-linked genes Therefore, men are much more likely to have a sex-linked trait or disease, they only need one gene to get it, women need two! Color-blindness Baldness Muscular dystrophy Hemophilia
Practice: Hemophilia is sex linked. Cross a female carrier with a normal male. X A X a x X A Y If they have a girl, what are the chances she is a carrier? Normal? Has hemophilia? If they have a boy, what are the chances he has hemophilia? Is normal? Is a carrier?
Practice: Hemophilia is sex linked. Cross a man with hemophilia with a carrier woman. X a Y x X A X a If they have a girl, what are the chances she is a carrier? Normal? Has hemophilia? If they have a boy, what are the chances he has hemophilia? Is normal? Is a carrier?
X inactivation in females Sometimes, the second X is inactivated in females, and is called a Barr body. She is still normal and fertile, but sometimes has patchy skin. This is what causes calico cats, every calico cat you see MUST be female.
Abnormal Chromosome Number Nondisjunction is when chromosomes do not separate correctly during meiosis. This causes an abnormal chromosome number, called aneuploidy Trisomy is when you have 3 chromosomes instead of 2 (2n + 1) Monosomy is when you have 1 chromosome instead of 2 (2n – 1) Polyploidy is having more than one complete set of chromosomes If any of the above organisms survive to birth, it will have major developmental abnormalities
Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 is Down Syndrome, where the child has 3 copies of chromosome 21 (instead of 2) Different facial features Short stature Mental disabilities Prone to leukemia and Alzheimer’s Sexually underdeveloped or sterile Reduced Life expectancy
Aneuploidy of Sex chromosomes XXY is Klinefelter Syndrome: male sex organs, small testes, sterile XYY: taller than average XXX: trisomy X, healthy and normal XO: Turner Syndrome, Monosomy X, sterile, appear female, no secondary sex characteristics develop without hormone therapy All of the above have normal intelligence
Alterations of chromosome structure Deletion: chromosomal fragment is deleted Duplication: a chromosomal fragment is doubled Inversion: chromosomal fragment gets reversed Translocation: chromosomal fragments get switched around
Other Diseases Cri du chat: deletion from chromosome 5, mentally disabled, die early Chronic myelogenous leukemia: 22 and 9 trade pieces, cancer of white blood cells results
2 Exceptions to this chapter 1. Genomic imprinting: a zygote expresses only one allele (either mom’s or dad’s) instead of both. 2. Inheritance of organelle genes: we have DNA in our mitochondria, and it comes only from mom