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Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition

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Presentation on theme: "Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fifth Edition

2 Learning Objectives Explain the purpose and objectives of object-oriented design Develop component diagrams and deployment diagrams Develop design class diagrams Use CRC cards to define class responsibilities and collaborations Explain the fundamental principles of object-oriented design

3 Overview This chapter is thorough explanation of how to design simple systems Architechtural design is used to define the structure and configuration of the new system Good object-oriented design is based on fundamental design principles Design classes are a fundamental element in systems design Class-Responsibility-Collaboration (CRC) cards are useful for designing simple systems

4 Object-Oriented Design—The Bridge Between Analysis and Programming
Bridge between users’ requirements and new system’s programming Object-oriented design is process by which detailed object-oriented models are built Programmers use design to write code and test new system User interface, network, controls, security, and database require design tasks and models

5 Overview of Object-Oriented Programs
Set of objects that cooperate to accomplish result Object contains program logic and necessary attributes in a single unit Objects send each other messages and collaborate to support functions of main program OO systems designer provides detail for programmers Design class diagrams, interaction diagrams, and some state machine diagrams

6 Object-Oriented Three-Layer Program

7 Object-Oriented Design Processes and Models
Diagrams developed for analysis/requirements Use case diagrams, use case descriptions and activity diagrams, domain model class diagrams, and system sequence diagrams Diagrams developed for design Component diagrams and Deployment diagrams Interaction diagrams and package diagrams Design class diagrams

8 Design Models with Their Respective Input Models

9 Object-Oriented Architectural Design
Desktop system Enterprise-level system Network or client/server system Internet based system

10 Differences between network and Internet systems

11 Component Diagrams and Architectural Design
Shows overall system architecture API is the set of all public methods available in the component Ports and Sockets define the interface Frameset notation to extend UML notation Used to describe web components

12 Component Diagram Notation

13 Two-layer Architectural Design of an Internet System

14 Three-layer Architectural Design of an Internet system

15 Sample Web Services Design

16 Deployment Diagrams Deployment diagram shows physical components of a new system Node is a physical component Artifact is an executable module Artifacts are components after they have been compiled into executables

17 Sample Deployment Diagram of an Internet System

18 Fundamental Principles of Object-oriented Detailed Design
Design class diagrams and detailed sequence diagrams Use each other as inputs and are developed in parallel Sequence diagrams define the interactions between objects in order to execute a use case. Interactions are called messages Correspond to method calls in programming language Design Classes show attributes and method signatures

19 Sample Sequence Diagram

20 Sample Design Class

21 Sample Java Class Definition

22 Object-oriented Design Process

23 Design Class Symbols UML does not distinguish between design class notation and domain model notation Domain model class diagram shows conceptual classes in users’ work environment Design class diagram specifically defines software classes UML uses stereotype notation to categorize a model element by its characteristics

24 Standard Stereotypes Found in Design Models

25 Standard Design Classes
Entity – design identifier for problem domain class Persistent class – exists after system is shut down Control – mediates between boundary and entity classes, between the view layer and domain layer Boundary – designed to live on system’s automation boundary, touched by users User interface and windows classes Data access – retrieves data from and sends data to database

26 Design Class Notation Name – class name and stereotype information
Attribute visibility (private or public) – attribute name, type- expression, initial-value, property Method signature – information needed to invoke (or call) the method Method visibility, method name, type-expression (return parameter), method parameter list (incoming arguments)‏ Overloaded method – method with same name but two or more different parameter lists Class-level method – method associated with class instead of each object (static or shared method), denoted by an underline

27 Notation Used to Define a Design Class

28 Design Class Definitions
Overloaded method – a method with one name but different parameter lists Class-level method – a method associated with the class rather than an object Class-level attribute – an attribute that contains the same value for all objects Overridden method – a method in a subclass that overrides the parents method Abstract class – a class that is never instantiated Concrete class – a normal class with objects

29 Sample Class Diagram with Design Classes and Inheritance

30 Developing the First-cut Design Class Diagram
Elaborate the attributes Visibility, Type cast, Initial values Navigation Visibility Ability to reference the methods of another object

31 Navigation Visibility

32 Navigation Visibility Guidelines
One-to-many with superior to subordinate. The visibility goes from the superior to the subordinate Mandatory relationships for existence. Visibility goes from independent to dependent Object needs information from another object. Visibility goes to object with the information Navigational arrows may be bidirectional

33 First Cut Class Diagram for RMO

34 Detailed Design with CRC cards
Class-Responsibility-Collaboration Design process Select a single use case Identify class with primary responsibility Identify other classes that collaborate with primary class (become requests for service to other classes)‏ Identify responsibilities within each class (these become methods)‏

35 CRC Card Notation

36 CRC Card Set for Process new order

37 Updated Design Class Diagram with Visibility and Methods

38 Some Fundamental Design Principles
Encapsulation – each object is self-contained unit that includes data and methods that access data Object reuse – designers often reuse same classes for windows components Information hiding – data associated with object is not visible to outside world

39 Some Fundamental Design Principles (continued)
Coupling – qualitative measure of how closely classes in a design class diagram are linked Number of navigation arrows in design class diagram or messages in a sequence diagram Loosely coupled – system is easier to understand and maintain Cohesion – qualitative measure of consistency of functions within a single class Separation of responsibility – divide low cohesive class into several highly cohesive classes Highly cohesive – system is easier to understand and maintain and reuse is more likely

40 Some Fundamental Design Principles (continued)‏
Protection from variations – parts of a system that are unlikely to change are segregated from those that will Indirection – an intermediate class is placed between two classes to decouple them but still link them Object responsibility – Objects are responsible for system processing Responsibilities include knowing and doing

41 Summary Object-oriented design is the bridge between user requirements (in analysis models) and final system (constructed in programming language)‏ Systems design is driven by use cases, design class diagrams, and CRC Cards Domain class diagrams are transformed into design class diagram

42 Summary (continued)‏ Object-oriented design principles must be applied
Encapsulation – data fields are placed in classes along with methods to process that data Low coupling – connectivity between classes High cohesion – nature of an individual class Protection from variations – parts of a system that are unlikely to change are segregated from those that will Indirection – an intermediate class is placed between two classes to decouple them but still link them Separation navigation – access classes have to other classes Three-layer design is used because maintainable

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