Presentation on theme: "Dyslexia and the Brain Dys= poor Lexis = words/language"— Presentation transcript:
1 Dyslexia and the Brain Dys= poor Lexis = words/language A Brief Overview by John Gaston
2 Lets Cover the Following… What is Dyslexia? (definition, IDEA and ) SLD eligibility, myths)Neurological InformationAssessmentsInterventions/AccomodationsFun Facts
3 Is Learning to Read Easy or Hard? Some Numbers….. 5% of students learn to read effortlessly20%-30% learn to read easily with any kind of formal reading instruction60% find learning to read a challenge12%-18% need intensive help from highly trained educators to learn how to read80% of students with a learning disability, dyslexia is the deficit area.
4 Myths about Dyslexia…… Repeating a grade will often help children gain skills because it allows them to mature and become developmentally ready to readGifted children cannot be dyslexic or have other learning disabilitiesMany children who experience reading and writing problems in kindergarten through third grade will outgrow those problemsDyslexia is rare (5% or less) in schools
5 What is Dyslexia?It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and / or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. (International Dyslexia Association)Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects the development of literacy and language related skills. It is likely to be present at birth and to be life-long in its effects. It is characterized by difficulties with phonological processing, rapid naming, working memory, processing speed, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual's other cognitive abilities. It tends to be resistant to conventional teaching methods, but its effect can be mitigated by appropriately specific intervention, including the application of information technology and supportive counseling. (British Dyslexia Association)As with other learning disabilities, dyslexia is a lifelong challenge that people are born with. This language processing disorder can hinder reading, writing, spelling and sometimes even speaking. Dyslexia is not a sign of poor intelligence or laziness. It is also not the result of impaired vision. Children and adults with dyslexia simply have a neurological disorder that causes their brains to process and interpret information differently. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)Specific Learning Disability: Means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. Specific learning disability includes conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, dyslexia, minimal brain dysfunction, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, intellectual disability, emotional disturbance, or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. (ODE)
6 Easy Definition…..Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.It is characterized by difficulties with:accurate and/or fluent word recognitionpoor spellingpoor decoding abilitiesPhonologically based (phonological dyslexia or visually based (orthographic dyslexia)
7 Neurological Information: Differences in brain function Some kids have brains that are wired differently for learning to read. They have a hard time with:Phonemic awareness (recognizing, manipulating and remembering the sounds in spoken language) = phonological dyslexiaMatching sounds of spoken language with symbols of written language = orthographic dyslexia
10 AssessmentsWhile a variety of tests may be used, the components of a good assessment remain the same. Special attention should be paid to gathering data in areas such as: expressive oral language, expressive written language, receptive oral language, receptive written language, intellectual functioning, cognitive processing and educational achievement.Cognitive Testing (looking at working memory, rapid automatic naming, processing speed)Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (TOSWRF)Test of Orthographic Competence (TOC)Behavior Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF)
11 Interventions/Accomodations Research has proven that explicit, systematic phonics can actually help ‘rewire’ the brain and help dyslexic students learn to read.The use of the Orton-Gillingham approach can significantly compensate for the language learning and processing problems that arise from dyslexia.Dyslexics score significantly higher on test when they are given additional time and given the test orally.Dyslexics do best when directions are two steps or fewer. They often get confused and frustrated with a long list of “to dos” or directions.The more important, consistent, frequent, multi-sensory, and emotionally reinforcing information is presented, the easier and more enduring language learning becomes for dyslexics.
12 Interventions Continued More top-down approaches that stress orthographic patterns of the English language, word origin, and their relation to spelling and word families.Organizational skills if the student experiences executive function differences as a result of poor rapid automatic naming ability (RAN).
13 A little dyslexic humor to finish up! Dyslexics of the World, Untie!!!