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Chapter 3 The Basics of Networking

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1 Chapter 3 The Basics of Networking
Fluency Chapter 3 The Basics of Networking

2 What is the Internet? What’s your address?
The totality of all wires, fibers, switches, routers, satellite links, and other hardware for transporting information between addressed computers. What’s your address?

3 How have computers changed our lives?
For the better? For the worse? What effect has it had on the influence of the English language?

4 Communication Categories
Synchronous Asynchronous Broadcast Multicast Point-to-point So what category does the Internet fit into? Synchronous – both sender and receiver are active at the same time – e.g. telephone Asynchronous – sending and receiving occur at different times – e.g. letter Broadcast – single sender & many receivers – e.g. television & radio Multicast – many receivers but specialized – e.g. car racing magazine Point-to-point: opposite of broadcast & multicast

5 Computer addresses Each computer connected to the Internet is given a unique IP (Internet Protocol) address IP address – currently series of 4 numbers separated by dots: e.g Each # can be in range of 0-255 Internet protocol moving to Version 6 (IPv6) with a 16-byte address system.

6 Domain Names Domain – related group of networked computers
A more human-friendly way of addressing computers based on a hierarchy of domains. Domain – related group of networked computers Domain Name System (DNS) translates the domain name into its 4-number IP address DNS server – a computer that keeps a list of the symbolic names and the corresponding IP addresses

7 Top Level Domains .com .org .mil .net .gov .edu
In addition there’s a 2-letter country code: .uk, .au, .fr etc. that identifies countries There is a US code - .us

8 TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCP – breaks a transmission up into small fixed-size packets Each packet contains the following: Data being sent Destination IP address Sequence # IP - re-orders the packets at the destination to assemble the information Vincent Cerf, one of the IP pioneers, used a postcard analogy to describe the TCP/IP process

9 Characteristics of TCP/IP
Packets are independent Packets are transmitted over the Internet using whatever route is available Transmissions often rely on multiple technologies to move the packets through the Internet: Telephone lines Fiber optics Dedicated lines

10 Networks WAN – wide-area networks: networks designed to send information between two locations not directly connected. Packets take several “hops” before delivery LAN – local-area network. Computers are directly cabled or “channeled” together. Most LANs use Ethernet technology.

11 Connecting to the Internet
ISP – Internet Service Provider Examples? Connection method: Modem DSL (digital subscriber line) Network connections LANs connect to the Internet via a gateway. Information from a remote Web computer is sent across the Internet, through the gateway to the organization’s intranet, and across the LAN to the user’s computer.

12 The World Wide Web Web servers – computers programmed to send files to browsers running on other computers connected to the Internet. Subset of the Internet Each web page has a unique address called a Universal Resource Locator or URL Built on a client-server relationship When you request a page, your browser is a client of the web server.

13 The URL The URL consists of three parts:
Protocol: - stands for Hypertext Transfer Ptococol Server computer’s name Pathname of the particular page

14 Structure of emails and URLs
The receiver can have dots, dashes, and underscores. URL: The domain address has one or more dots, no slashes. Spaces are not allowed in or URLs.

15 Describing a Web Page Web pages stored as a description of how they should appear Description file is called the source file Written in HTML (hypertext markup language) Markup languages describe document layout Hypertext – breaks linear sequence of text through links: non-linear and dynamic HTML was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 when he was working for CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics.

16 Directory Organization
root page folder folder

17 path

18 Th . . .th that’s all, folks!

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