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Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 1 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting Part 2 Microprocessor.

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Presentation on theme: "Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 1 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting Part 2 Microprocessor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 1 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting Part 2 Microprocessor Development - History and Future Computer Architecture Slide Sets WS 2012/2013 Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

2 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The beginnings of the microprocessor era are closely related with the names of Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce. They founded the well-known company Fairchild Semiconductors in Mountain View, California, in Gordon Moore was the president and Robert Noyce the chief in design and development. Most of the basics of modern Planar Process Technology has been proposed and implemented in this company. The Beginnings Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 2 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

3 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit At this time Gordon Moore made his prediction about the increasing complexity in chip design. This prediction became true over decades and is the most cited statement about the exponential growth of transistor count in integrated chips. It is well known as Moore-curve or Moores Law which shows the doubling of transistor count every 18 month The Beginnings Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 3 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

4 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Moores Law Gordon Moore: Cramming more components onto integrated circuits, Electronics, Vol 38, Mr. 8, April 19, 1965 Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 4 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

5 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit 10 years later the company Intel was founded by the same two engineers. The main motivation for founding Intel was the replacement of the bulky and low capacity ferrit-core-memories by integrated memories on the basis of silicon. Intel became soon one of the leading companies for mass production of integrated memories. The responsible engineer scientist for the development of DRAMs was Andy Grove. Foundation of Intel Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 5 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

6 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit year µP- development Production of first IC Production of memory chips (DRAM) First Intel Prozessor Chip Intel 4004 Intel 8008 Intel 8080 Intel 32 Bit CISC Architectures Intel 386 Intel EPIC IA64 arch. Itanium Chips Intel Prozessor series:Pentium, Pentium Pro Pentium II, III, IV Foundation of Fairchild Semicon- ductor Foundation of Intel Core 2 Duo Quad Core Core i7 Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 6 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

7 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit 1971: Trans.10 µm740 kHz 1972: Trans.10 µm800 kHz 1974: Trans.6.0 µm3 MHz 1978: Trans.3.0 µm10 MHz 1982: Trans.1.5 µm12 MHz 1985: Trans.1.0 µm33 MHz 1989: Mio Trans.800 nm50 MHz 1993:Pentium3.1 Mio Trans. 800 nm66 MHz 1995:Pentium Pro5.5 Mio Trans.600 nm200 MHz 1997:Pentium II9 Mio Trans.350 nm300 MHz 1999:Pentium III9.5 Mio Trans.250 nm600 MHz 2000:Pentium 455 Mio Trans.180 nm2 GHz 2001:Itanium25.4 Mio Trans.180 nm800 MHz 2002:Itanium II221 Mio Trans.180 nm1 GHz 2006:Core 2 Duo291 Mio Trans.65 nm3 GHz 2007:Core 2 Quad582 Mio Trans.65 nm2.4 GHz 2009:Core i7731 Mio Trans.45 nm3.3 GHz 2011:Core i7 / 2995 Mio Trans.32 nm2.5 GHz Intel Microprocessors Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 7 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

8 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The beginning of the microprocessor era was in the seventies initiated by a joint project of Intel and the Japanese company Busycom. The project deals with the design of integrated chips for a calculator specified by Busycom. Instead of the development of several special chips, a new concept was proposed by Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin, both designer of Intel. The concept of microprocessor Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 8 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

9 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit They combined the functionality of the special chips to one microarchitecture with an own instruction set. The instruction set was comparable to the ISA of a DEC minicomputer at that time. A chip set of 4 chips was designed (4001, 4002, 4003, 4004) where the complete instruction set microarchitecture was integrated on one chip (4004) The concept of the microprocessor was born. The concept of microprocessor Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 9 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

10 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The concept of microprocessor Journal: Electronic News Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 10 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

11 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit The concept of microprocessor The 8008 microprocessor origined from a similar cooperation The Datapoint Coorp. ordered Intel to develop a control component for a terminal The project failed (control was too slow), but the resulting chip was sold by Intel as 8008 Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 11 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

12 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Microprocessor families After the start of the microprocessor era in the beginning of the seventies new series and families of microcomputers with rapidly increasing performance has been developed. The high reputation of Intel in the group of microprocessor manufactures was founded by the series, 8008, 8080 followed by 80286, and up to the well known PentiumX and Core series. Due to the high success in microprocessor mass production Intel decided to refuse from the memory market and to concentrate in the microprocessor design. Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 12 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

13 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Microprocessor families Other important companies designed and fabricated their own successful microprocessor families as e.g.: Motorola with the MC680XX series IBM with the Power PC architecture Texas Instruments with TMS 320XXX DEC/Compaq with Alpha processor family Transmeta with the Crusoe processors Intel/Siemens with I 8051 Intel/HP with Itanium family Sun with Sparc (Ultra Sparc) Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 13 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

14 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Microprocessor applications Examples for applications are: PCs, Multi-Media-PCs, Workstations, etc. Embedded Systems, Smartcards, Cell phones, Palmtops, etc. Server, High End Server, Computer nets, etc. Microprocessors and memory chips are the basic integrated components of all modern computer applications. All recent operating systems inclusive LINUX are available for microprocessors. Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 14 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

15 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit Intel 4004 Design-gap Software-productivity (8% -10% growth p.a.) design-productivity (20% -25% growth p.a.) Gates/cm² (Moores Law, 59% growth p.a.) (s) Intel Pentium IV # transistors year M 995 M Moore curve and design gaps Intel Core i7 Sandy Bridge Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 15 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

16 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit CISC / RISC paradigm From the beginning of the microprocessor era up the end of the eighties, the CISC paradigm (Complex Instruction set) was dominant. These decades are characterized by assembler programming. Therefore the programmer should be supported with complex instructions. A high level functionality on the level of the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) was intended to bridge the semantic gap between machine instructions and high level language. The basic technology was microprogramming. Complex machine instructions are decoded by microcode. Prominent representation for this class of CISC processors is the x86 ISA. Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 16 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting

17 Hier wird Wissen Wirklichkeit CISC / RISC paradigm In the beginning of the eighties, a new concept, the RISC paradigm (Reduced Instruction set) was developed. By having simple instructions, these could be executed more quickly. The main idea was, even so programs growing larger the overall execution time could be reduced by quicker execution. This idea came true! The RISC idea mainly triggered and influenced modern processor microarchitecture All todays high performance microprocessor consist of an internal RISC kernel Some of them (e.g. Intel Pentium/Core) hide this RISC kernel by a CISC like ISA layer (e.g. for compatibility reasons) Computer Architecture – Part 2 – page 17 of 17 – Prof. Dr. Uwe Brinkschulte, M.Sc. Benjamin Betting


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