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ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada

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1 ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada
Richard Shockey IETF ENUM WG Co-Chair Senior Manager – Strategic Technology Initiatives NeuStar, Inc. 46000 Center Oak Plaza Sterling VA USA

2 Agenda How did we get here? How does it work? Where is it going …

3 What is the IETF ? Internet Engineering Task Force
Oversees the standards process for Internet protocols and technologies Industry driven standards body No membership whatsoever Personal participation, anyone can participate Work is done using mailing lists Rough consensus and running code (no voting)

4 What is the IETF ? Work is done in Working Groups (i.e. ENUM WG)
WG has a charter, statement of activity, schedule and milestones and a mailing list WGs can be instantiated and closed (by IESG) Working Groups exist within an Area (currently 8 areas, i.e. ENUM WG is part of Transport Area) An area is managed by an Area Director Area Directors are members of the IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group) The IESG and IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is chartered by the Internet Society

5 ENUM in a nutshell RFC 2916 take phone number +1 571 434 5651
turn it into a FQDN ask the DNS return list of URI’s

6 Step 1 Explanation Each digit in the FQDN can become a definable and distributed “zone” in DNS terms Delegation can (biut doesn’t have to) happen at every digit, including at last digit Zones such as country codes, area codes or primary delegated blocks of numbers can be delegated as well as individual numbers DNS defines authoritative name servers (NS records) for NAPTR/service resource records

7 The ENUM Delegation Tiers

8 The Response from the DNS
Input: $ORIGIN Output: All NAPTR RR will be returned to resolver In this response the preferred contact method is SIP ord pr fl service regexp replacement IN NAPTR "u" “E2U+sip" . IN NAPTR "u" “E2U+VPIM" "!^.*$!!" . IN NAPTR "u" “E2U+fax" . Based on service requirements defined by the enumservice field, translate replacement field into URL and execute as required

9 ENUM WG RFC 2916 bis is the update of RFC 2916: draft-ietf-enum-rfc2916bis-07.txt RFC number due at any moment Main differences are ENUM is now a DDDS application enumservice field has changed enumservices have to be registered with IANA DNS security mentioned Clarifications on text

10 Why E.164 Numbers for VoIP? Addressing is the most important asset in ANY network service! People know how to use Telephone Numbers Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable global and reliable Billions of devices only use numeric key pads, especially wireless In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC First Order and Report), MCI has stated that, based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent of business customers and 80 percent of residential customers would be unlikely to change service providers if they had to change their telephone numbers. ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number portability VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging, Video) can use Real Telephone Numbers! URIs like have advantages and disadvantages Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN In fact they cannot be dialed at all … URI’s and telephone numbers will co-exist for the indefinite future

11 ENUM as glue An URI (Address of Record) mapped to E.164 ENUM FQDN number allows you: Reach any destination IP C/UA directly from IP by dialing the full E.164 number as default support for multiple dialing plans possible including corporate dial plans in a separate tree see I-D: draft-stastny-enum-numbering-voip-00.txt In the future, if ENUM and SS7 can be integrated you can reach destinations on IP from the PSTN/ISDN as well When does a C5 do a ENUM dip?

12 ENUM is a DDDS Application
Dynamic Delegation Discovery System, RFC 3401 through RFC 3405 RFC 3401 is the base document, but you have to read at least RFC 3401 through RFC 3404 to understand DDDS RFC 3402 specifies the Algorithm of DDDS RFC 3403 specifies the NAPTR Resource Record

13 Oh BTW ..Its about SIP Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol
It is the Session Initiation Protocol Integration of Voice-Text-Video “sessions” Inventors: M. Handley, H. Schulzrinne, E. Schooler, and J. Rosenberg Became “Proposed Standard” and RFC 2543 in March 1999 in MMUSIC WG. Separate SIP WG established in September 1999. Now new SIPPING (applications) and SIMPLE (presence and instant messaging) WGs using SIP. RFC2543bis-09 I-D became RFC 3261 in June 2002 Added four new authors: G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J. Peterson, and R. Sparks. Entire spec rewritten for clarity, but some new features Mostly backwards compatible with RFC 2543

14 Simple ENUM/SIP Call Flow SIP RFC 3261
ENUM Global Directory (DNS) Equates to to enable Voice over IP using SIP 3. DNS returns NAPTR record containing SIP URL to Calling Party UA 2. Calling party proxy UAC queries DNS for location of end point 1. The caller simply dials the person’s normal telephone number 4. Calling party UA connects the call

15 ENUM and VoIP as a Hot Potato
ENUM is tightly linked with numbering administrations and therefore within the national regulatory framework aka Country Code 1 - NANP Deployment of ENUM is also tightly linked with the deployment of VoIP Deployment of ENUM involves NRA's and Registries (in Europe primarily the ccTLD's) Who those registries are a national matter Surprise Surprise there are lots of Political questions to be answered

16 How do you use ENUM for? Business: with IP PBX or IP Centrex – core activity using geographic and/or numbers for networks (opt-in) linking IP islands together globally via the Internet Residential: with my geographic number or mobile (opt-in) secondary line or as primary line (ported out) Network to Network ...the Private ENUM issue. Cable Operators Inter-Intra Enterprise Dial Plan Management Residential and Business: ENUM-only number ( European Focus ) IP device can be reached from PSTN and IP calls may be dumped to IP in the originating network using IP specific prefixes like 050 in Japan Not possible in NANP due to NPA restrictions (non service specific)

17 Public ENUM Vs Operator ENUM
Public ENUM is the administrative policies and procedures surrounding the administration of as defined in RFC 2916 1 to 1 mapping of E.164 number to URI’s Nation State Control – Generally speaking Consumer Opt In ( Consumer Control of the NAPTR records) Operator (Private) ENUM is the use of DNS technology described in RFC 2916 in other domains. A Managed Service Service Provider or Enterprise Controlled Non Visible to the the general Internet user VPN’s Access Control to the Data

18 Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan
IBM is deploying the biggest VoIP network of any major Fortune 500 company IBM can unite global VoIP dialing plans across existing VPN and Intranet Links on diverse vendor Platforms ENUM unites them through common administration and access plan                 Wireless calls represent a significant and growing portion of total bill Worker mobility increasing overall telecommunications cost PDA proliferation will increase the need and use of corporate messaging ENUM Public or Internal

19 MSO Market : Optimal Service Routing
MSO can now optimize VoIP call termination strategies by routing calls directly from one operator to another –ENUM acts a element in a overall Least Cost Routing Strategy Essentially “Friends and Family” dialing plans among MSO’s Wireless calls represent a significant and growing portion of total bill Worker mobility increasing overall telecommunications cost PDA proliferation will increase the need and use of corporate messaging ENUM

20 (Very short) ENUM History
IETF ENUM WG formed Sept – IETF ENUM WG – RFC2916 2001 – Various Workshops (ITU-T, Europe, US, Asia, …) 2002 – ITU-T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE-NCC) – ITU-T generic TLD Investigation – ETSI TS "ENUM Administration in Europe" 2003 – ETSI TS "Minimum Requirements for Interoperability of European ENUM Trials" – IETF various enumservices on standards track – IETF RFC2916bis WGLC 2004 – Planned: – IETF new ENUM RFC, IANA registered enumservices – ITU-T final decision on ENUM domain – ETSI ENUM Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest

21 (Very short) ENUM Trial History
2002 – US ENUM Forum – Trial Platforms in AT, UK, SE, DE, CN, N*… – Austrian ENUM Trial in operation (Sept. 2002) 2003 – Various national and international ENUM Trials using different scenarios and numbering resources and using different ENUM-enabled products – National and international demos and presentations (IETF, ITU-T, VON, ICANN, …) – SIP communities start using ENUM (FWD, Sipphone, iptel, at43, …) – Pre-commercial deployment starts 2004 – ENUM ready for production and deployment (at least in some countries)

22 The IAB – ITU Agreements
Core Principal – Nation-State control of the national portions of the tree. [RFC3026] Blaine, R. "Liaison to IETF/ISOC on ENUM" RFC 3026, January 2001 [RFC 3245] Klensin, J. Editor "The History and Context of Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) Operational Decisions:  Informational Documents Contributed to ITU-T Study Group 2  (SG2)", RFC 3245, March 2000 Interim Procedures for the delegation of E.164 Shared Country Codes for Networks and Groups of Countries; 

23 Large Scale IPC Trial at43
Large Scale Trial on IP Communications using ENUM University of Vienna ~ Students re-use of existing student account credentials via RADIUS SIP Express Router as SIP proxy with call routing, ENUM processing, PSTN interworking some functions based on Asterisk open-source IP-PBX: voic , conference bridge, IVR, PSTN Connection: CISCO 5300 PSTN/ISDN Gateway with PRA Various Soft- and Hard-phones, WiFi-Phones, … IP Connection to other universities, communities and "IP-PBX" Applications: Crash test for VoIP, Chat, IM, Presence, SMS, use of SIM-Cards… IP calls free, PSTN->IP calls by caller; IP->PSTN with call-by-call accounting Naming, Numbering and Addressing with ENUM Base: Austrian number for private networks: nnnnnn global UPT number: nnnnnn ORIGIN * NAPTR "u" "E2U+sip" .

24 DNS Technology as a replacement for SS7
ENUM/DNS and or SIP can provide a more sophisticated, less expensive and easier to deploy Number Translation Services for service providers. The natural evolution of NextGen telephony signaling systems SCP costs 1 Million Dollars + PRI’s + per dip charges DNS Box 25 K maximum BIND9 SS7 signaling is complicated, expensive and disruptive in an all IP architecture Number Portability- Geographic number to routing number mapping (NP dip) It’s there It works… It’s global… It scales… It’s open…

25 Public ENUM Status - What about the US?
US DOMESTIC POLICY – August 13, 2003 United States Government reiterates its support for RFC 2916 and endorses moving forward with ENUM based on the concept of a Industry Managed LLC LLC is forming NOW ! Similar to Number Portability Structure United States ENUM Forum - Created by industry to develop policy and steps to Implement ENUM in the United States Participants include WCOM, ATT, Sprint, SBC, Verizon, NeuStar, Cox , C&W, Cisco, Telcordia

26 ENUM Global Status – 23 Active National Trials
EUROPE UK National Trials Well Underway 2003 Austrian National ENUM trials have begun with AT-NIC Jointly working on ITU-UPT code as well Sweden running since Dec ITU ENUM web pages

27 ENUM Global Status – National Forums
JAPAN   Poland Korea The Netherlands, Germany, Brazil, China Approved ENUM Delegation list ETSI Plugfest

28 Lessons learnt in the ENUM Trials
ENUM technology works, Most problems solved, but shift in focus for the business models. The original business model of ENUM for residential subscribers with opt-in for existing numbers has problems: Potentially it's only a second line service 911 issues privacy problems with multiple services ( spam) Validation and re-validation of the number holder problem How to enable Metcalfe's Law? The usefulness, or utility, of a network equals the square of the number of users

29 IETF Work Today Privacy Security Operational Experience
servicefield IANA registration SIP H.323 Presence FAX – T.30 and Internet Fax VPIM web - msg

30 Privacy and Security issue
What is ENUM Calling party control – Global Directory Service List all available URI for all possible services ? Called Party control - IMHO the answer Minimal Routing Data Base SIP AOR only Let SIP do the dirty work

31 Security / Authentication issues
What about DNSSEC Its not ready yet. Period. Who can register the TN and why? Punt – It’s a national issue How do you determine if the ENUM registrant has valid rights to the number?

32 IETF ENUM WG TBD Provisioning protocols the ENUM system WHOIS ?
Tier 1 Tier 2 interactions (SOAP ?) XML object based on PROVREG work ? WHOIS ? Strong technical reasons for wanting a WHOIS like service here CRISP (aka not port 43)? The IRIS protocol ?

33 IRIS Developed in IETF to provide capability sets existing in telecom Intelligent Network environment Text based protocol designed to allow registries of Internet resources to express query and result types specific to their needs while providing a framework for authentication, structured data, entity references and search continuations Encompasses the following a decentralized system using DNS hierarchies where possible for location built upon standard Internet building blocks does not impose any informational trees or matrices may be used with multiple application transports, including BEEP

34 IRIS Features XML based Internationalization
Localization of data tags and content Identifying contact equivalences Support of Internationalized Domain Names Unified Service Structured queries and results Distinction Authentication – the process used to verify the identity of a user Authorization – the access policies applied to a user based on authentication

35 Questions Contact, not Content, is King Douglas Rushkoff

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