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6 chapter Business Essentials, 7 th Edition Ebert/Griffin © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Organizing for the Business Instructor Lecture PowerPoints PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Carol Vollmer Pope Alverno College
What Is Organizational Structure? Organizational Structure – The specification of the jobs to be done within an organization and the ways in which those jobs relate to one another Organizational Charts – Clarify structure and show employees where they fit into a firm’s operations – Show the chain of command, or reporting relationships, within a company © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 6.1 The Chart FIGURE 6.1 The Organizational Chart
Determinants of Organizational Structure External Environment Internal Environment Size Strategy Mission Organizational structure is usually quite fluid! © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Building Blocks of Organizational Structure Specialization – Division of work: job specialization Departmentalization – Product, process, functional, customer, or geographic Establishment of a decision-making hierarchy – Distributing authority: Delegation: assigning tasks Centralization: upper management retains authority Decentralization: lower-level managers make decisions © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Planning Departments Once jobs have been specialized, they need to be grouped into logical units. – This is called departmentalization. – Here are some areas of departmentalization: Product departmentalization Process departmentalization Functional departmentalization Customer departmentalization Geographic departmentalization Multi forms (combinations) of departmentalization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 6.2 Multiple Forms of Departmentalization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Establishing the Decision-Making Hierarchy Centralized Organization Decentralized Organization Lower-level managers hold significant decision-making authority Top managers hold most decision-making authority © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tall and Flat Organizations Flat Organizational Structure – Common in decentralized organizations – Fewer layers of management – Rapid communication – Wide spans of control Tall Organizational Structure – Common in centralized organizations – Multiple layers of management – Slower communication – Narrower spans of control © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 6.3 Organizational Structure and Span of Control © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Delegation Process Delegation – The process through which a manager allocates work to subordinates Delegation Entails: – Assignment of responsibility—the duty to perform an assigned task – Granting of authority—the power to make decisions necessary to complete the task – Creation of accountability—the obligation of employees to successfully complete the task © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why Managers Won’t Delegate The fear that subordinates don’t really know how to do the job The desire to keep as much control as possible over how things are done The fear that a subordinate might “show the manager up” in front of others by doing a superb job A simple lack of ability as to how to effectively delegate to others © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forms of Authority Line Authority – The type of operational authority that flows up and down the chain of command Staff Authority – Authority based on special expertise and usually involves counseling and advising line managers Committee and Team Authority – Authority granted to committees or work teams that play central roles in the firm’s daily operations © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 6.4 Line and Staff Organization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forms of Organizational Structure Functional Structure – Form of business organization in which authority is determined by the relationships between group functions and activities – Used by most small- to medium-sized firms structured around basic business functions (marketing, operations, finance) – Advantages: Specialization and smoother internal coordination – Disadvantages: Centralization, poor cross-functional coordination, and lack of accountability © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 6.5 Functional Structure © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forms of Organizational Structure (cont’d) Divisional Structure –Based on departmentalization by product, with each division managed as a separate enterprise –Organizations using this approach are typically structured around several divisions—departments that resemble separate businesses in that they produce and market their own products –Advantages: Increased product-focus and internal coordination –Disadvantages: Duplication of efforts and competition between divisions © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 6.6 Divisional Structure © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forms of Organizational Structure (cont’d) Matrix Structure – Organized along two dimensions, instead of just one, by combining, for example, functional and divisional structures – Advantages: Highly flexible, focused on a single problem, access to resources and expertise – Disadvantages: Loss of command and control, lack of accountability, impermanent existence © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 6.7 Matrix Organization at Martha Stewart’s Omnimedia © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forms of Organizational Structure (cont’d) International Structures – Developed in response to the need to manufacture, purchase, and sell in global markets – Department, division, or geographic Global Structure – Acquiring resources (including capital), producing goods and services, engaging in research and development, and selling products in whatever local market is appropriate, without any consideration of national boundaries © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 6.8 International Division Structure © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Organizational Design for the 21st Century Team Organization – Relies almost exclusively on project-type teams, with little or no underlying functional hierarchy Virtual Organization – Has little or no formal structure, few permanent employees, a very small staff, and a modest administrative facility Learning Organization – Integrates continuous improvement and employee learning and development while transforming itself to respond to changing demands and needs © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
FIGURE 6.9 The Virtual Organization © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Informal Organization – Everyday social interactions among employees that transcend formal jobs and job interrelationships – Advantages: May reinforce the formal organization – Disadvantages: Can reinforce office politics that put the interests of individuals ahead of those of the firm May communicate distorted or inaccurate information © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Informal Organization (cont’d) Informal Groups – Groups of people who decide to interact among themselves, sometimes about business Organizational Grapevine – The informal communication network that runs throughout the organization Intrapreneuring – Creating and maintaining the innovation and flexibility of a small-business environment within the confines of a large, bureaucratic structure © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
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