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AP BIOLOGY First Semester. Biochemistry Water Chemical structure Importance of.

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Presentation on theme: "AP BIOLOGY First Semester. Biochemistry Water Chemical structure Importance of."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP BIOLOGY First Semester

2 Biochemistry

3 Water Chemical structure Importance of

4 Bonds Covalent Ionic Hydrogen Hydrophobic interactions

5 Carbon Chemistry Importance of Carbon Chemical reactions with carbon –Synthesis –Cleavage (Hydrolysis) –Oxidation –Reduction –Isomerization

6 Carbohydrates Basic structure Importance of

7 Lipids Basic structure Importance of

8 Nucleic Acids Basic structure Importance of

9 Proteins Basic structure Importance of

10 Enzymes How they function How they are regulated Enzyme Catalysis Lab

11 Cell Membranes

12 Main Parts Nucleus Membrane Organelles –ER –Golgi –Mitochondria –Chloroplast Ribosomes Cytoskeleton

13 Membrane Important Structures

14 Movement across the Membrane Diffusion and Osmosis Lab Active Transport Endocytosis and Exocytosis

15 Cell communication Types of primary messengers: –Hormones (lipid or peptide/amides) –Neurotransmitters (peptides/amides) Secondary messengers (propagate a message inside the cell) Signal transduction –G-linked –Kinase –Ion transport

16 Cellular Energetics

17 Oxidation and Reduction Reducing Agents Oxidizing Agents

18 Photosynthesis Overall reaction Light Reaction Dark Reaction Lab

19 Cell Respiration Overall reaction Glycolysis and Fermentation Krebs Cycle Respiratory Chain Lab

20 Heredity

21 Chromosomes Structure Gene Allele Diploid Haploid

22 Mitosis Stages Importance of Lab

23 Meiosis Stages Importance of –Crossing over –Nondisjunction

24 Basic Heredity Mendelian Gene (1 Gene  1 Chromosome) Law of Segregation Single Factor –AA X aa (P) –Aa x Aa (F1)

25 Basic Heredity, con’d Incomplete Dominance Codominance (Blood Type)

26 Basic Heredity, con’d Double Factor Cross –AABB x aabb (P) –AaBb x AaBb (F1) Independent Assortment

27 Modern Heredity Sex Linked (XX, XY) Linked Genes (2+ Genes  1 Chromosome) Recombination Frequency / Chromosome Mapping

28 Molecular Genetics

29 DNA Replication Semiconservative Basic Steps DNA Polymerase


31 Protein Synthesis Transcription Translation

32 DNA Technology Restriction Enzymes DNA Fingerprint Lab Gene cloning using plasmids Transformation Lab

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