Presentation on theme: "Matter and Energy Force, Motion, and Energy &. Matter and Energy Main Idea You will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter."— Presentation transcript:
Matter and Energy Main Idea You will be able to demonstrate an understanding of the properties of matter and energy and their interactions. [8 questions on STAAR]
Matter has measurable physical properties. Those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. Matter and Energy Main Idea
Matter and Energy ***Readiness Standard*** Classify - matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy
Mass Definition: The amount (how much) matter is in an object Measured using a balance (triple beam balance/pan balance) Measured in metric units of “grams”, “kilograms”, and “milligrams”
Magnetism Definition: A force that causes some objects to be attracted (pulled to) or repelled (pushed away) by a magnet. Test for magnetism by touching a magnet to the item. Some metals are magnetic. Some metals are not. Magnetic MetalsNon-Magnetic Metals IronAluminum SteelCopper CobaltBrass
Physical State Definite shape and volume. The particles are close together and vibrate in place. Solid Definite volume, but no definite shape (takes shape of container). The particles are spread out slightly but can still flow past each other. Liquid No definite volume or shape. Particles spread out to fill an area and move freely. Gas Click the picture for a video and a karaoke song
Models of Solid, Liquid, and Gas States of Matter
Relative Density Density is the amount of mass that is in a certain volume of material. Relative density is the comparison of the densities of items, whether one thing is more dense, less dense, or equal density to another item. If an item is put in water and it sinks the items density is greater than the water’s density. If an item is put in water and it floats the items density is less than the water’s density.
Solubility in Water Solubility is the ability of a material to dissolve in another material (such as water) A solute is the substance that is being dissolved. A solvent is the substance in which the solute is being dissolved. A mixture of a solute and a solvent is known as a solution.
Ability to Conduct or Insulate (Thermal Energy or Electrical Energy) Conductor Definition: The ability to carry thermal (heat) and electrical energy Insulator Definition: The ability to block or hold back thermal and electrical energy ***If a material is a good conductor it will usually be a poor insulator. If a material is a good insulator it will usually be a poor conductor. Good ConductorsGood Insulators MetalsPlastic GraphiteGlass Rubber Cloth
Sample Question Never put anything made of metal into an appliance that is plugged up. Metal will conduct the electricity and give you a shock.
Sample Questions B shows that oil is less dense than water so it will sit on top of water and not mix with it. Cork is less dense than the oil so the cork will float on the oil. Cork is therefore BOUYANT when it is added to oil or water.
Matter and Energy Predict, observe, and record - changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling.
Changes Caused to Matter by Heating and Cooling Click on each picture for an activity about heating and cooling matter
Matter and Energy Identify - the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale
Sample Questions Pure water will begin to boil at 100 degrees Celsius. The volume (amount of ) water does not affect the temperature that the water will begin boiling (or melting, or freezing).
Matter and Energy Demonstrate - that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand
Mixtures Mixture: When two or more materials are combined together. Basic mixtures have materials that do not change physical properties (they maintain their physical properties) so they are relatively easy to separate. To separate mixtures, find a physical property that the items do NOT have in common and use that as the means to separate. (such as one is magnetic and the other is not)
Methods to separate Mixtures –1. Funnel with Coffee Filter: separate liquids from solids –2. Sieve/Screen: separate items out by size, smaller items fall through –3. Magnet: separates magnetic items from non- magnetic items –4. Tweezers or forceps: Separates larger items from smaller by picking them up 5. Hot plate/Heat source: Separates solutes from solvents in solutions by evaporating the liquid (solvent) and leaving crystals of the solute behind
Sample Questions Toothpicks are made of a wood that is less dense than water, so they will float on the surface of water. Glass marbles are made of a heavy glass that is more dense than water, so the glass marbles will sink to the bottom of the container of water. This makes it easy to separate the two when water is added. Nope! This will make them stick together! Nope! Neither item is magnetic! Nope! They will still be together because neither can pass through the paper.
Matter and Energy Identify - changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water
Solutions Solutions are special mixtures in which one material “dissolves” into another material. The material that dissolves is the “solute” The material that it dissolves into is the “solvent”
How a Solution is made When an material, like salt, dissolves into a material, like water, it makes a solution. The salt crystals break down into smaller and smaller pieces until they are so small that they can no longer be seen. They then spread evenly throughout the solvent.
Sample Question Brooke designs an experiment to determine if temperature has an effect on the amount of sugar that can be dissolved in a glass of tea. Her materials for conducting her experiment include beakers, tea bags, sugar, water, and stirring rods. She knows that some variables need to stay the same during the experiment. Which of the following is the variable that will be different in each setup? A.The temperature of the water C. The amount of water used B. The amount of sugar usedD. The brand of tea bags used
Energy, Force, and Motion Main Idea You will demonstrate an understanding of force, motion, and energy and their relationships. [10 questions on STAAR]
Energy, Force, and Motion Main Idea Energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. Forces cause change
Energy, Force, and Motion ***Readiness Standard*** Explore - the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy
Mechanical Energy The energy to move something Used to put things in motion / move objects Mechanical Energy Potential Energy Stored or resting energy The object has the potential to move or to do work, but it is not Kinetic Energy Energy in Motion The energy to make things move or to do work
Light Energy Produces light. Travels in waves. A light source is anything that can make it’s own light. Used to help us to see things Also used to provide the energy for plants to make their own food
Thermal Energy Thermal means “heat” Transfers heat –Heat always moves from areas of hot to areas of cold. Used to heat things up or cool things down –Increasing or adding heat will make things warmer –Decreasing or losing heat will make things colder
Electrical Energy The movement of electrons from an atom Will move in a circuit (a circular path) Used to make electricity –Electricity powers many things Electrical energy can be transferred into other types of energy, such as light, sound, and heat.
Sound Energy The energy to create sounds. Sound is caused by vibrations. Vibrations travel to the ears through the air in waves. Used to create sounds
Energy, Force, and Motion ***Readiness Standard*** Demonstrate - that the flow of electricity in circuits requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and can produce light, heat, and sound.
Electric Circuits A circuit is a closed path that allows energy to flow from an back to a source of electricity and to give power to another object. All electric circuits must have three things in order to work: 1)A source of energy (battery, generator, etc.) 2)A conductor (wires) 3)Something to use the electricity (light bulb, PSP, buzzer, heater, fan, tv, etc.)
Diagrams of how a flashlight electrical circuit works HOW ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED TO PRODUCE OTHER TYPES OF ENERGY IN FLASHLIGHTS Batteries have stored energy from chemicals mixing together. The chemical energy produces electrical energy. The electrical energy produces light energy. The light energy produces heat energy.
Energy, Force, and Motion ***Readiness Standard*** Demonstrate - that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels through one medium to another and that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces and refracted such as the appearance of an object when observed through water
Reflected Light Reflected means “bounced”. Reflected light bounces off a shiny surface and returns back at the same speed and angle that the light hit the object with. The shinier and smoother an object is, the better it will reflect light.
Refracted Light Anytime light passes through something transparent (clear) and slows down, it will be refracted. –Glass –Water –Oil Refracted means bending, or slowing down, of the light, which makes an object appear to be at a different spot and larger or smaller than it really is
Refracted Light This is caused because the light does not travel as fast through the new material (medium) and it will make the object appear larger or smaller than it really is. Click on the lens picture for a model of how light refracts through glass lenses There are two types of lenses Concave – caves in or scopes in at the middle Convex – thicker in the middle than on the edges
Refracted Light When light passes through a prism it bends the white light, making it to separate out into the colors that make up white light. This creates a rainbow. Colors will always split out in the same order: Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
Refracted light creates rainbows A rainbow is created when light passes through water droplets in the sky. The water acts like a prism, bending the light and causing it to split out into the rainbow colors.
Sample Questions Refraction will cause the light to “bend” when it passes through the lens Light must pass through the lens to be refracted. The light stops at the lens and is not reflected or refracted. The model needs dotted lines to show angle of refraction or reflection. The light did not “bend” as it passed through the lens, therefore, it was NOT refracted
Energy, Force, and Motion Design - an experiment that tests the effect of force on an object Demonstrate and Observe - how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects to show work being done such as swings, balls, pulleys, and wagons
Force: Anything that exerts a push or pull on something else Forces can start things moving or can stop the motion. Forces can also change the direction something is moving in.
Sample Questions You should repeat the experiment at least three times in identical setups to the first trial. The key words here was “same floor: and “repeated” trials.
Sample Questions Two moving boats are photographed from above at 3:00 p.m. and 3:15 p.m. Which statement correctly compares their motion? F They are traveling in the same direction at equal speeds. G They are traveling in opposite directions at equal speeds. H They are traveling in the same direction, and boat 2 has a greater speed. J They are traveling in opposite directions, and boat 2 has a slower speed