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Linguistic Typology and Language Universals Holger Diessel University of Jena

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1 Linguistic Typology and Language Universals Holger Diessel University of Jena

2 English - German GermanEnglish der Mann dem Mann den Mann die Frau der Frau die Frau das Haus dem Haus das Haus the man die Männerdie Frauendie Häuserthe men

3 English - German (1)Wenn er käme … (2)If he came …

4 English - German (1)Er ging vorsichtig die Treppe hinunter. (2)He careful-ly walked down the stairs.

5 English - German (1)Gehst du nach Hause? (2)Are you going home?

6 English - German (1)Er wird dich anrufen, wenn er deine Mail bekommen hat. (2)He will call you if he has gotten you .

7 English - German Weak verbsStrong verbs lachen-lachte-gelacht schreiben-schrieb-geschrieben laugh-laughed-laughed write-wrote-written

8 English - German (1)hat geschrieben has written (2)wird schreiben will write

9 Universals All languages have vowels and consonants All languages have vowels and consonants All languages have nouns and verbs All languages have nouns and verbs All languages have demonstratives All languages have demonstratives

10 Universals Some languages indicate grammatical relations by word order, others indicate grammatical relations by morphological means like case suffixes. Some languages indicate grammatical relations by word order, others indicate grammatical relations by morphological means like case suffixes. Some languages place all nominal modifiers before the head noun, others place all nominal modifiers after he head noun. Some languages place all nominal modifiers before the head noun, others place all nominal modifiers after he head noun.

11 Universals (1)The man who slept… (2)The man who(m) I met… (3)The man who I talked about… (4)The man whose friend disappeared … SUBJ OBJ OBL GEN

12 Universals The Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy SUBJ > OBJ > OBL > GEN If a language allows for the formation of a relative clause at a certain point on the hierarchy, it also allows for the formation of all relative clauses higher up on the hierarchy, while relative clauses lower on the hierarchy may not be permissible. [Keenan and Comrie 1977]

13 Topics Introduction to the field of linguistic typology Introduction to the field of linguistic typology Functional-cognitive explanations for linguistic structure: Why is language the way it is? Functional-cognitive explanations for linguistic structure: Why is language the way it is? The structure of English from a cross-linguistic point of view The structure of English from a cross-linguistic point of view

14 Syllabus Language families, sampling, types of universals Language families, sampling, types of universals Nominal and verbal categories Nominal and verbal categories Morphological marking Morphological marking Word order Word order Case marking and grammatical relations Case marking and grammatical relations Complex sentences Complex sentences Animacy hierarchy Animacy hierarchy Markedness Markedness

15 Readings Comrie, Bernard Language Typology and Linguistic Universals. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. (second edition) Croft, William Typology and Universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (first edition) Givón, Talmy. 1984/1990. Syntax. A functional-typological Introduction. Vols Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Shopen, Timothey (ed.) Language Typology and Syntactic Description. Vols Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Whaley, Lindsay J Introduction to Typology. The Unity and Diversity of Languages. Thousands Oaks: Sage.

16 Requirements Term paper Term paper Short report Short report Three assignments Three assignments

17 Reference grammars (1)Lobala (Niger-Congo: Zaire) Motome t-a-ikámo-phέ manDEM NEG-3s-PSTC1-give ná baphalnága nántóma andmoney andfood The man didnt give him either money or food. (2)Hixkaryana (Carib: Brazil) Apaytaray-ari-hiranexe-yewekoo chicken3S/3S-take-NEGbe-DPSThawk The hawk didnt take the chicken.


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