Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Second Language Teaching & Learning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 Second Language Teaching & Learning Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners: Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing.
2 Guiding QuestionsWhat do teachers need to know about language, and why do they need to know it?What does it mean to “know a language”?How do people acquire language?What do different theories of second language acquisition tell us?How would you describe your approach to second language teaching?
3 ELL Student Language Challenges 1. Vihn has difficulty pronouncing th words. Does he have a speech impediment?2. Chanyoung always leaves off the final s when she reads. I’ve told her a million times that plural words end with an s. Why is she refusing to read the words correctly?
4 ELL Student Language Challenges 3. Rosa always switches words around in the sentence, saying and writing things like “car red” instead of “red car.” Is she dyslexic?4. Suling always mixes up the gender-specific pronouns, calling girls he or him and boys she or her. I keep correcting her, but she just doesn’t get it. And if she calls me Mrs. Wright one more time I’m going to scream! Can’t she tell the difference between boys and girls? Should I refer her to special education?
5 ELL Student Language Challenges 5. Reading time was over and students were supposed to put their books away and start working on their math worksheets. But Thanawan just kept right on reading. I said to her, “Why are you still reading instead of doing your math?” She smiled and said, “Oh, because I not finish yet,” and she just kept on reading. Why did she disobey me so rudely?6. Our school puts most of the ELLs in a bilingual program. Everyone knows young children learn new languages quickly. So shouldn’t the students be placed in an English-only classroom before it’s too late for them to learn English?
6 ELL Student Language Challenges 7. My principal just bought us a software program that drills the ELL students in English. It’s really neat. If they get 30 drills in a row right they get rewarded with a little animation where a bunny pops out of the tree and does a little dance. The box the software came in says the students will be speaking English in 3 or 4 weeks. Does this mean our ELLs will be ready for the poetry analysis unit we’re starting next month?8. Roberto keeps saying, “I have 6 years old” when people ask him how old he is. We’ve done grammar worksheets and drills on am. And I keep correcting him. Why isn’t he learning it? Is he a slow learner?
7 ELL Student Language Challenges 9. During student oral presentations on sea mammals, William, one of my African American students, begins: “I gonna aks you a question. Why whales have blow holes? Whales gotta have blowholes because dey be breathin’ oxygen just like all da udder mammals. …” I just don’t understand why William speaks such poor English.10. RoDay quickly finished her math and spelling worksheets. And she seemed to do just fine reading along with the other students as we did a choral reading of a story from our reading basal. But unlike the other students, she has hardly done any work writing an alternative ending to the story. Why is she refusing to do what should be a fun and creative assignment?
8 What is Language? David Crystal’s (2001) Definition of Language “The systematic, conventional use of sounds, signs, or written symbols in a human society for communication and self-expression”Ability to use language separate humans from other animals
9 Why Teachers Need to Know About Language Filmore & Snow (2000) identify 5 functions teachers perform that require knowledge of languageTeacher as communicatorTeacher as educatorTeacher as evaluatorTeacher as an educated human beingTeacher as an agent of socializationAll classrooms are language learning environmentsLanguage is at the heart of teaching and learningTeachers need to “think linguistically”
10 What Teachers Need to Know About Language Subsystems of LanguagePhonologyMorphologySyntaxSemanticsPragmaticsVocabulary (Lexicon)SpellingLanguage Variation
11 Phonology The study of the sound systems of a language Phoneme Smallest units of sound in a languageChange in phoneme causes a change in meaningEx: bit/betAddresses the syllable structure and sequence of sounds in a wordKnowledge of phonology helps teachersUnderstand issues of pronunciation, accents, and regional varietiesDifferences in the phonology of a student’s first language (L1) and English that may lead to difficulties
12 Morphology The study of the structure of words Morpheme The smallest units that carry meaning or have a grammatical functionEx: Books books (free morpheme) +-s (bound morpheme)Inflectional changesex: fast/faster/fastestDerivational changes (words derived from other words)Ex: teach/teacherCreation of new vocabulary wordsEx: compounding – sun + roof = sunroofKnowledge of morphology helps teachersExplain prefixes, suffixes, infixes, verb tense changes, plurals, compound words, possessives, comparatives, superlatives, contractionsTeach word study lessons such as how to use morphemes to create (derive) new words from known wordsUnderstand challenges caused by differences in morphology rules in students L1
13 SyntaxThe study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences and the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequencesGrammarSyntax is about the relationship between words, and conveying intended meaningsWho did what to whom, when, where, and how.Knowledge of syntax helps teachersModel and explain word order and other grammatical rules to ensure students communicate effectivelyUnderstand challenges caused by differences in students’ L1 syntax
14 Semantics The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences Individual words have semantic features that indicate various properties or meanings inherent in the wordEx: Woman animate, human, female, adultThe relationships between wordsKnowledge of semantics helps teachersExplain synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms, etc.Develop vocabulary and word study lessons on semantically related wordsExplain cognates and false cognatesUnderstand challenges caused by differences in semantics in students’ L1
15 Pragmatics The study of language in use The study of “invisible” meaningHow we recognize what is meant even when it isn’t actually saidKnowledge of pragmatics helps teachersGuide students how to produce and to recognize and respond appropriately to direct and indirect speech actsRequests, commands, statements, questionsExplain to student appropriate ways tostart, maintain, take turns in, and end conversationsExpress opinions, agree, disagreeNegotiate social status, save face, make excusesIdentify misunderstandings that may arise due to pragmatic differences in students’ L1
16 Vocabulary (Lexicon) The vocabulary of a language is its lexicon Finegan (2004) notes to use a word from a lexicon, a speaker needs four kinds of information:Its sounds and their sequencing (phonology)Its meanings (semantics)Its category (e.g., noun or verb) and how to use it in a sentence (syntax)How related words such as the plural (for nouns) and past tense (for verbs) are formed (morphology)Children from English-speaking homes pick up about 13 new words a day, and know about 80,000 words by the time they are 17Teachers can help ELLs develop vocabulary in a similar manner by creating language rich classrooms which provide opportunities for natural vocabulary acquisition
17 Spelling The English spelling system can be very confusing Our modern American spelling system is not based simply on spelling words the way they sound.Words may be spelled similarly because they are related in meaning rather than soundEx: know/acknowledgeWords borrowed from other languages may be spelled to reflect their originEx: croissant
18 Language VariationStandard EnglishThe variety spoken by members of the dominant societyThe variety taught and assessed in schoolRegional and Non-Standard Varieties of EnglishSome differences in phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and/or vocabularyTeachers need to understand, and help students understand, that non-standard varieties are not “bad English”Are equally rule-governed and legitimateTeachers need to learn pedagogically sound and culturally sensitive methods for helping students learn Standard English without delegitimizing the variety of their homes and communities
19 What Does it Mean to “Know” a Language Old view – mastering a set of discrete skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writingBut language proficiency much greater than a sum of its partsCommon view – When you reach the level of a native speakerBut what is a “native speaker”?Different native speakers have different ranges of linguistic ability“Conservational” vs. “Academic Language Proficiency”A dichotomized view that conversational fluency can be developed in a couple of years but that academic language proficiency takes five years or longerCritics charge that this is a false dichotomyCritics note the construct of “academic language” is too simplistic to be generalized to the wide variety of language demands across tasks in different content areas
20 What Does it Mean to “Know” a Language TESOL StandardsAttempt to delineate what “academic language” proficiency means for ELLsBeing able to communicate for social, intercultural, and instructional purposes within the school settingBeing able to communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in language arts, mathematics, science, and social studiesRepresent a more current view of languageDelineates the different kinds of language demands associated with the different academic content areasLanguage ArtsMathematicsScienceSocial Studies
21 TESOL’s English Language Proficiency (ELP) Standards Standard 1: English language learners communicate for social, intercultural, and instructional purposes within the school setting. Standard 2: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of language arts. Standard 3: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of mathematics. Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of science. Standard 5: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the area of social studies.
22 What does it mean to know a language? Communicative Competence Knowing a language means being able to use it to communicate effectively and appropriately with other speakers of the languageGrammatical competence.The ability to recognize the lexical, morphological, syntactic, and phonological features of a language and use them to interpret and form words and sentences.Discourse competence.The ability to connect a series of utterances, written words, or phrases to form a meaningful whole.Sociolinguistic competence.The ability to understand the social context in which language is used, including the roles of the participants.Strategic competence.The ability to use coping strategies in unfamiliar contexts when imperfect knowledge of rules (or factors that limit their application), may lead to a breakdown in communication.
23 What does it mean to know a language? Register, Genre, and Discourse Variations in language, including the choice of words and grammar, that reflect the social setting or context in which it is usedGenreIn M.A.K. Halliday’s (1994) theory Systemic Functional Linguistics, refers to goal-directed activities, such as the creation of a particular kind of text, that functions to achieve a particular cultural purposeDiscourseJames Paul Gee (1996)discourse (small d) – language used in a particular context to enact activities and identitiesDiscourse (big D) - different ways in which we humans integrate language with non-language “stuff,” such as different ways of thinking, acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, believing, and using symbols, tools, and objects in the right places and at the right times so as to enact and recognize different identities and activitiesSchools need to help ELLs learn the registers and Discourses needed for academic and social success
24 What does it mean to know a language What does it mean to know a language? Second Language Instructional CompetenceJeff MacSwan and Kellie Rolstad (2003) introduced the concept of Second Language Instructional Competence (SLIC)An alternative to the problematic construct of “academic language proficiency”SLIC refers to the stage of second language (L2) development at which the learner is able to understand instruction and perform grade-level school activities in the L2 alone, in the local educational context.Teachers can focus on a specific academic task and ask themselves:What is the amount and type of linguistic proficiency that is required for that student to engage the subject matter at hand?What level of oral and written language is required for students to understand the language of instruction sufficiently well at that moment, in that context, to participate in that lesson and learn from it?
25 Theories of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) BehaviorismSkinnerHabit formation (stimulus and response; positive reinforcement)Innatist perspectiveChomskyUniversal Grammar; Language Acquisition DeviceKrashen’s HypothesesCognitive/Developmental Perspective (Psychological Theories)InteractionInput processingSociocultural PerspectiveVygotskyZone of Proximal Development (ZDP)
26 Innatist Theories of Second Language Acquisition Stephen Krashen (1982) proposed 5 interrelated hypotheses:The Acquisition-Learning HypothesisThe Natural Order HypothesisThe Monitor HypothesisThe Input HypothesisThe Affective Filter Hypothesis
27 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen The Acquisition-Learning HypothesisLanguage AcquisitionSubconscious process (not aware it is happening)Once we acquire something, not aware we possess new knowledgeSubconsciously stored in our brainsLanguage LearningWhat we did in schoolConscious process – we know we are learningRules, grammarBecause of the complexity of language, the vast majority is acquired, rather than consciously learned
28 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen Natural Order HypothesisWe acquire the parts of language in a predictable orderOrder for L1 and L2 is similar, but not identicalSome grammatical items tend to come earlier and others tend to come laterexample: third person singular –s (“Bob looks at his watch) comes lateNatural order appears to be immune to deliberate teachingCannot change natural order through drills, explanations, exercisesWon’t be acquired until its time has come
29 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen The Monitor HypothesisLanguage use mostly depends on acquired linguistic competenceConscious learning has one function only – as a “Monitor” or editorAfter producing some language (when speaking or writing), our monitor can kick in to correct it if necessaryLike a little language teacher in our heads reminding us of the rules
30 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen Input (Comprehension) HypothesisAnswers the most important question – How does language acquisition occur?We acquire language in one way – when we understand messages or obtain comprehensible inputWe acquire language when we understand what we hear or what we read, when we understand the messagei + 1i = a student’s current level of proficiency+1 = input that is just slightly above that levelA student can move from i to i +1 by understanding input containing i + 1.Do with the help of previously acquired linguistic competence and context
31 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen Affective Filter HypothesisAffective variables do not impact language acquisition directly, but may prevent comprehensible input.Examples, anxiety, low self-esteem, see self as outsider of language group, shyness, etc.If affective filter is high, it blocks comprehensible inputIf affective filter is low, it allows more comprehensible input in.Teachers need to create a supportive classroom environment to lower the affective filter and thus allow more i+1
32 Theories of L2 Acquisition Krashen Critiques of Krashen’s theoriesOversimplification of complex processes in second language acquisition (SLA)Can’t be provenCan’t operationalize things like i or +1 or specify the exact sequence in the natural orderDe-emphasizes language output (speaking, writing) and the importance of interactionSome misinterpret Krashen’s theories as opposing all direct teachingNonetheless, Krashen’s theories have inspired research and has led to new theories which build on his ideas
33 The Cognitive/Development Perspective (Psychological Theories) Interaction Hypothesis (Long)Interaction is essential for SLA to occurInput and interactions can be modified to maximize comprehensionComprehensible Output (Swain)Speaking forces learners to confront the limits of their language ability and push them to find better ways to get their message acrossNoticing Hypothesis (Schmidt)Nothing is learned unless students’ notice it in the inputProcessability Theory (Pienemann)Sequence in which learners acquire certain language features depends on how easy they are to process
34 The Cognitive/Development Perspective (Psychological Theories) Input Processing Model (VanPatten)“Language acquisition happens in only one way and all learners must undergo it. Learners must have exposure to communicative input and they must process it; the brain must organize data. Learners must acquire output procedures, and they need to interact with other speakers. There is no way around these fundamental aspects of acquisition; they are the basics.”
35 Sociocultural Theories VygotskyLearning is a social activityKnowledge is constructed through interaction and collaboration with othersZone of proximal development (ZPD)a domain or metaphoric space where children can reach a higher level of knowledge and performance with the support of an adult or other more knowledgeable personScaffoldingThe assistance given in the ZPDLanguage socializationLanguage learning is a process in which students are socialized into the knowledge and practices of the target speech communityLanguage ecologyEmphasis on studying language as within it sociocultural contexts
36 Transfer from L1 to L2 Positive transfer Negative transfer Students are able to take much of the content-area knowledge and literacy skills they gained in their first language (L1) and transfer it to their second language (L2).Students with L1 literacy skills will likely make rapid progress in developing English literacy skillsStudents who have substantial content-area knowledge in their L1 do not need to re-learn the concepts in EnglishThey simply need the language skills to demonstrate what they already know and can doNegative transferEx: applying L1 syntax rules to EnglishMore research needed to understand what does and does not transferTeachers can still be assured that students’ L1 literacy and content knowledge skills are great strengths to build upon
37 Second Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Grammar-Translation Method (1840s)Analysis and memorization of grammar rulesTranslation of sentences between the two languagesOpposition to this outdated and ineffective method inspired new methodsAudiolingual method (1930s)Influenced by behaviorismMemorization of dialogues and grammar drillsThe Natural Approach (late 1970s/1980s)Application of Krashen’s theories to the language learning classroomEmphasis on providing comprehensible input in an enjoyable classroom context so students can naturally acquire the language
38 Second Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Communicative Language Teaching (1980s)Current favored approach in the fieldBased on communicative competenceLearn the language to be able to actually communicate with other speakersClassroom activities focus on authentic and meaningful communicationIncludes some focus on form (grammar) which is necessary to comprehend and produce comprehensible outputThere are a wide range of communicative language teaching approaches, methods, and strategies
39 Second Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Content-based instruction is a type of communicative language teachingA selected content area becomes a meaningful context for authentic communication as learners collaborate to complete carefully designed academic tasksESL teachers used math, social studies, or science as vehicles for language instructionBut ESL teachers were not experts in these areaFocus was more on learning the language than learning the content-area concepts
40 Second Language Teaching Methods and Approaches Sheltered InstructionAlso called specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE)Content-area teachers learn to shelter (specially design) their instruction to make it comprehensible for ELLs while supporting their English language developmentPopular modelsCognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model
41 Critical Pedagogy Developed by Paulo Freire in the 1960s Focus on liberating oppressed students through transformative educationMany teachers recognize the importance of helping ELLs understand and confront unequal power relations in order to improve their lives and society as they learn English and academic content.Rejects the “banking” model of education where teachers simply make deposits of essential knowledge and skills into the heads of studentsInvolves problem posing, reflective thinking, knowledge gathering, and collaborative decision makingHelp students find and express their voiceCentral to levels 3 (transformative) and 4 (social action) of Banks’ levels of multicultural education(see Chapter 1)
42 Beyond Approaches and Methods No single method or approach is applicable to or appropriate for every classroomTeachers can draw on the variety of methods and approaches and develop their own personal approach informed by observation, experimentation, and refection on the following guiding questions:What are the students’ strengths and needs?What are the instructional goals?What is likely to be challenging about these goals for these students?What strategies can help address these challenges?How will you know whether these strategies are effective?
43 ConclusionKnowledge of language is relevant to the many roles teachers play as communicators, educators, evaluators, educated human beings, and agents of socializationWhen teachers know their students well, they can provide the type of learning environment that builds on their students’ strengths and addresses their unique needs. They can provide appropriate instruction, activities, and opportunities for meaningful interaction to help their students continue to make progress in developing proficiency in English
44 Activitiy Work with a partner or in a group of three students (Activity sheet available on Companion Website)Work with a partner or in a group of three studentsRead, discuss and complete the matching activity sheetSecond language acquisition perspectivesLinguistic subsystemsApproaches and methodsCheck and share your answers with the whole group