3 The Outer EarPinna-Catches the sound waves and sends them to the ear canalEar Canal- Sends the sound waves through to the ear drumEar Drum- Vibrates and sends the sound waves to the Middle Ear
4 The Three Middle Ear Bones Middle Ear PartsThe Three Middle Ear BonesThe Malleus- The Malleus gets the vibration from the Ear Drum and sends it to the Incus.HammerStirrupThe Incus-Gets the vibration from the Malleus and sends it to the Stapes.AnvilThe Stapes-gets the vibration from the Incus and sends it to the Cochlea
5 The Cochlea-A liquid filled space that receives vibration from the stirrup when it pushes on it The Inner EarThe Nerve Endings-Are inside the cochlea and are like piano keys because each one makes different sound. They bend when they are touched by the vibration wave.The Hearing Nerve-Receives message from the Nerve endings and sends them to the brain.Semi-Circular Canals-Aren’t for hearing. They are like a leveling tool. They sit on the cochlea and help make you not feel dizzy
6 Types of Hearing Loss Conductive Sensorineural Mixed Caused by injury, obstruction, or disease of the outer or middle ear that prevents the ear from conducting sound.Fluid in the middle ear, wax build-up, absence or malformation of the outer ear, ear infectionsThe loss CAN be medically or surgically correctedSensorineuralDamage to the sensory hair cells of the inner ear or the auditory nerve that leads to the brainEffects the way one hears clearly and how one understands speech correctlyThe loss is permanent and CANNOT be correctedMixedA combination of conductive and sensorineural lossesPart of the damage is in the outer ear or middle ear and the other part is in the inner ear.
8 MILD (26 to 40 dB)Difficulty understanding faint or distant speechMay need work to develop vocabularyFavorable seating and lighting in classroomMODERATE (41-55 dB)Understands speaker face to face or a short distanceMay miss as much as 50% of class discussionMay need vocabulary development, speech therapy, or special class placement in primary grades
9 MODERATELY SEVERE (56-70 dB) Conversation must be loud to be heardWill need a hearing aid and training with its useIs likely to have problems pronouncing sounds, have language delays, and limited vocabularyWill need extra help in Language Arts, speech therapySEVERE (71-90 dB)May hear loud voices or sounds very close to earSpeech and language development are delayed.Will need extra help with language skills, concept development, speech, intensive communication building skills should be taughtMay be a candidate for cochlear implant(s)
10 FM UnitsWhat is an FM?Frequency-Modulated system that allows a D/HH student hear over a distance and sends the speaker’s voice directly to the hearing aid or cochlear implant*Without an FM, the speaker’s voice can be difficult to understand when paired with everyday background noise (heaters, buzzing lights, pencil sharpeners, etc.)
11 Impacts of Hearing Loss Language delayedSpoken languageNot uncommon for students to speak with nasal or atonal qualityAcademic performanceVocabulary development delaysReading and writing difficultyDifficulty in comprehension across academic subjectsIdioms and familiar English phrases interpreted literallyWritten and oral language will reflect the way he/she hears-Word endings –s,-ed, -ingDepends on age child was diagnosed with a hearing loss.Many deaf children are not “vanilla deaf”Limited phonemic awarenessWhat does the student hear during everyday conversation? Look at the Speech Banana.Example: The fox saw two hens. Even with a mild loss, the student misses most of those sounds. /e ok aw oo en/Imagine reading and pronouncing these sounds that D/HH students so rarely hear.
12 Ways Teachers Can Help! Use visual aids whenever possible Provide a note-taker or hand-out of notesEliminate or reduce extraneous noiseAppropriate use of equipmentDo not speak with back faced to classWrite announcements and assignments on boardAvoid chewing gum while lecturing
13 More Ideas Use overhead instead of the board Allow for breaks Reduce the distance from you to studentAdvantageous seating for studentPoint out who is speaking in class discussionsAlways use captioned films/videosLecture from the front of the room, avoid pacing
14 And Some More Strategies Have key vocabulary accessible visuallyEducate the class about hearing lossFace the student when speakingRepeat questions and comments other students makeDo not stand or sit in front of a bright windowFlicker lights to get classroom attentionSpeak directly to the student, not the interpreter